Saturday, December 28, 2019
SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s taste for psychoactive substances is attested to in the earliest human records. Drug use and abuse is as old as mankind; humans have always had an inclination towards ingesting substances that make them feel stimulated, relaxed, or euphoric. In the past, the general population has used psychoactive substances for religious and ceremonial, medicinal and recreational purposes in a socially approved way. Our forbearers refined more potent compounds and devised faster routes of administration, which made these drugs easier to consume, which began the social stigmatization attached to varying substances. The complex causation of psychoactive substance use is reflected in the frequent pendulum swings between opposing attitudes on issues that are constantly being debated. Some examples are: is substance abuse a sin or a disease? Is addiction caused by the substance, the individual s vulnerability and psychology, or social factors? Which substances should be regulated and w hich should be freely available? Why are some drugs normalized while others are deemed unacceptable? Some substances were shut out of Western society because their production and consumption served only recreational purposes that did not align with Protestant ethic values, and did not contribute to the further development of the economy. Meanwhile other drugs, mainly coffee became a necessary staple in Western societyÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life. There are several reasons why society has come to accept caffeine (inShow MoreRelatedReaction Paper On Limitless1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe movie Eddie comes across a substance called Ã¢â¬Å"NZTÃ¢â¬ . This substance turned out to be a drug that could unleash his untapped cognitive potential. Within one day of taking the pill he was able to complete the stalled book and create his formula which later allowed him to become an enigma on Wall Street. The premise of the movie is very interesting for people who have looked at pushing their cognitive limits. This movie has drawn comparisons to the stimulant psychoactive drugs Adderall and ModafinilRead MoreEssay about Marijuana Should Not Be Legalized680 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMarijuana is a green or brown mix of preserved, crushed leaves from the marijuana plant. A psychoactive drug, marijuana contains fifty-percent more tar than tobacco. Smoking the harmful plant can damage the brain, lungs, and the male reproductive system and may es calate the effects of epilepsy and psychosis (Kahler, 1988). Within campus colleges and universities, there are a lot of students who are using marijuana recreationally. Long-term marijuana use can induce negative effects on short-term memoryRead MoreCaffeine Synthesis1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmost consumed psychoactive substance in the worldÃ¢â¬ (Ruxton How is this instead (Caffeine is especially common throughoutÃ¢â¬ ¦) 15). It is found very especially commonly throughout every day foods and consumed mostly though through coffee, tea, soda, and chocolate (Spiller 200). Many Americans participate in the use of caffeine; it is estimated that 90% of adults in the United States drink caffeinated beverages (Yang 245). How does this effect people though? Caffeine is a substance, even consideredRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespatients who are prescribed the medication. Within her article, Healy briefly discussed some health effects of the psychoactive chemical within cannabis, otherwise known as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, since her article was published researchers have discovered different chemicals within the plant which can possibly help with other symptoms. Cannabidiol, (CBD) the non-psychoactive plant in marijuana has been used to treat patients with epilepsy in order to improve their symptoms. Devinski etRead MoreThe American War On Drugs1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnationwide survey from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) revealed that 18.9 million (7.3 percent) of Americans 12 to 17 years old had used marijuana in the prior month. Cannabis is in fact an extremely popular recreational drug around the world, just behind alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco. TetrahydrocannabinolÃ¢â¬â¢s (THC) primary psychoactive effect is a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, forms of euphoria. Secondary psychoactive effects of THC are that ofRead MoreGambling : When It s Not All Fun And Games Essay1627 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGambling: When itÃ¢â¬â¢s Not all Fun and Games In the past decade, gaming and gambling in the United States have experienced a great upswing. The majority of states have expanded legalized gaming, including regulated casino-style games and lotteries, there has been a huge increase in the opening of Native American casinos and among other things, online gambling and betting has become increasingly more popular (Humphrey). While at first glance, this may seem to be a good thing, it is imperative that oneRead MoreEssay On Caffeine1241 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdrowsiness, headaches, and migraines. Too much caffeine can give you headaches. Caffeine has some dangerous effects that may affect your heath.Ã¢â¬ Site: www.healthline.com and www.mindbodyandgreen.com IS caffeine an addictive drug, and should it be regulated? Ã¢â¬Å"Caffeine is defined as a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system causing increased alertness. Caffeine gives most people a temporarily energy boost and elevates mood.Ã¢â¬ Kidshealth.org/in/ teens/caffeine.html Ã¢â¬ ¢ How does caffeineRead MoreReforming Marijuana: Marijuana Should Be Legalized792 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"MarijuanaÃ¢â¬ the first thing that comes into the mind is that its a drug which is illegal. Some people believe that the only use of marijuana plant is that it can get you high, which isnt true. The Marijuana, cannabis, or hemp plant is one of the oldest psychoactive plants known to man. Many people fail to realize that marijuana has a history of more than 8000 years and it has only been illegal for a short period of time. Its history dates back as far as 6000 B.C , when cannabis seeds were used as food inRead MoreUsing Vaporizing Pens Are Becoming A Very Popular Trend Essay1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescannabinoids could lead to environmental and passive contamination.Ã¢â¬ People can mix in synthetic marijuana into e-liquids and can be inhaled through a pen-sized vaporizer. Not only can people smoke cannabis out of vaporizer pens, they can also smoke psychoactive drugs such as, methamphetamine, cocaine, heroin, or bath salts (cathinones). According to Paul Tchounwou (2015), Ã¢â¬Å"Very recently, drug users have discovered a method of adapting e-cigs to vaporize a potent hallucinogen known as dimethyltrptamineRead MoreWhat Are The Seven New Dangerous Drugs1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) recently revealed that new psychoactive substances are emerging in the market in terms of both quantity and diversity. However, the paucity of data on the harmfulness and prevalence of these substances offer a challenge in facilitating risk assessment at the international level. Here are the seven new dangerous drugs that are gaining traction and notoriety: Acetylfentanyl Acetylfentanyl is a derivative of fentanyl. It has been used as a substitute
Thursday, December 19, 2019
The excavation and discovery of TutankhamunÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb was as a result of the efforts of the Archaeologist Howard Carter and his team. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of the tomb came by finding steps to the burial near the entrance to the tomb Ramses VI. The subsequent excavated of the site by Carter and his team revealed the greatest ever treasure found from an Egyptian tomb and showed the existence of Tutankhamun. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s methodology for the excavation was that of maintaining records for each artefact and that every artefact that was brought out of the tomb was preserved appropriately. The discovery and excavation of the tomb was a long and complex process but with it revealed much about Tutankhamun. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of the tomb came by finding stepsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This approach to the opening of the chamber demonstrates CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s caution that he took into the excavation of TutankhamunÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb and the transportation of the contents that was inside it. Carter opened the burial chamber and when he did he was confronted by the golden walls and two large statues Ã¢â¬Å"So enormous was this structure (17 feet by 11 feet, and 9 feet high, we found out afterwards) that it filled within a little the entire area of the chamberÃ¢â¬ gives an accurate description of these statues and an accurate account of the amount of artefacts that were found in TutankhamunÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s methodology for the excavation was that of maintaining records for each artefact and that every artefact that was brought out of the tomb was preserved appropriately. Carter methodology involved the referencing of every item found, where it was found in the tomb, preservation of the item and its conservation. Photographs were also taken of the artefactsShow MoreRelatedEssay on King Tut991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespharaoh today because of the discovery of his tomb and his treasures. King TutÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb was a major discovery of the 19th century. It was a phenomenal discovery that made headlines across the world. Up until the discovery of King TutÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb, it was believed that all royal tombs had been robbed and drained of their treasure. The Discovery Tutankhamuns tomb was discovered in the Valley of the Kings KV62 on November 4, 1922 by the British Egyptologist Howard Carter. The Tomb was discovered near theRead MoreExplain the Archaeological/Written Evidence of the Uniqueness of TutankhamunÃ¢â¬â¢s Tomb in the Eighteenth Dynasty.1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof TutankhamunÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb in the Eighteenth Dynasty. Tutankhamun was an Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh whose legacy extends to the present, and currently one of the best-known ancient Egyptians of all-time. The Ã¢â¬Å"Boy KingÃ¢â¬ inherited the throne at the age of nine, his reign lasting only ten years before his sudden unexpected death. The traditional burial customs and funeral processions were carried out upon him, but the tomb he was laid to rest in was unique from the typical Eighteenth Dynasty tombs characterisedRead MoreThe Fascination Regarding the Mummys Curse705 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn 1922, Howard Carter opened the Tomb of Tutankhamun and sparked a wave of popular and scholarly interest in Egyptology. After the Carter discovery, a team of archaeologists and their assistants arrived for the proper dig. Although Carter fared fine, six of the 26 members of the subsequent dig died within a decade of their participation in the endeavor. The leader of the archaeological expedition, Lord Carnaveron, died of blood poisoning. Becaus e quite a few of the team members died within a relativelyRead MoreWhat Was Known About The Site Before Its Discovery?1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬ ¢ What was known about the site before its discovery? Before the first known recording of Ur by Pietro Della Valle in 1625, there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t much known about the site. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the early 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s that it was officially identified as the site of Ur which was due to the discovery of the Ziggurat of Ur by John George Taylor . The remains of the Ziggurat were first described by William Kennett Loftus, a Geologist and archaeologist from Newcastle, in the early 19th century. Ã¢â¬ ¢ How it was discovered andRead MoreThe Excavation Of King Tut s Tomb951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesknowledge about the world of the past is opened. The Colosseum built under the reign of Emperor Vespasian of Rome and the GÃ ¶bekli Tepe of the Neolithic Era prevail as one of the most extraordinary structures of the ancient world (#). The excavation of King TutÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb further unveils valuable information about life in ancient Egypt. An architectural structure like the Colosseum reflects the values and cultures of the ancient Roman civilization. This freestanding elliptical amphitheater has the capacityRead MoreControversial Issues in Archaelogy1011 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin museums. While the field of archaeology is exciting, and the idea of partaking in perilous adventures may seem alluring, the archaeologist was depicted in an incorrect manner. An archaeologist is someone who studies human history through the excavation of sites and the examination of artifacts. Archaeologis ts study the past to learn more about the lives and cultures of people before. The science of archaeology is a relatively new and quickly growing field; yet, as expected with science, numerousRead MoreEssay on Miol2911 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages25/3 HISTORY, ARCHAEOLOGY AND SCIENCE Term 2: Monday 29/4/13 Ã¢â¬â Friday 28/6/13 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 29/4 6/5 Week 10 1/4 8/4 TUTANKHAMUNÃ¢â¬â¢S TOMB TASK 1 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 20/5 13/5 Week 11 27/5 3/6 10/6 17/6 24/6 TASK 2 HOMER AND THE TROJAN WAR TUTÃ¢â¬â¢S TOMB THERA Task Term 3: Monday 15/7/13 Ã¢â¬â Friday 20/9/13 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 15/7 22/7 29/7 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Read MoreTomb 10A1957 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesTomb 10A was discovered near the Nile River in a region known as Deir el-Bersha (The Secrets of Tomb 10A: Egypt 2000 BC 2009). It is the 4,000 year old resting place of a governor and his wife, both of whom ruled during the 11th or 12th dynasty and are named Djehutynakht. After the tomb was excavated in 1915 by archaeologists from Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston (MFA), it was clear that what they had found was a consummate archetype of traditional Egyptian burial practices
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
The power of death as a common experience for mortals is further compounded as Malouf advocates that men, even from different socio-economic backgrounds can forge a connection based on their similar emotions, as depicted through PriamÃ¢â¬â¢s connection with the Ã¢â¬ËordinaryÃ¢â¬â¢ carter, Somax. Death, as the final experience of all mortals, is shown to be able to catalyse deeply human connections between men, through which Malouf draws an allusion to the cyclical nature of life and death. Malouf begins his novel by demonstrating the overarching significance of death, and the emotional turmoil it causes, especially to those close to it. Achilles is first displayed not as a mighty warrior, as one would expect from The Illiad, but as a Ã¢â¬ËmanÃ¢â¬â¢, looking out to the shore, with his mind as Ã¢â¬Ëthe most active part of himÃ¢â¬â¢. Malouf immediately signals his own interpretation of the text, as he details emotional transformations that are the result of such underlying turmoil. Malouf here demonstrates that the seemingly impenetrable warrior Achilles, who had learnt Ã¢â¬Ënever to betray what he feltÃ¢â¬â¢, can experience truly human emotions. The murder of Patroclus on the battlefield serves as an emotional trigger for Achilles, who is reduced to Ã¢â¬Ëweep[ing] without restraintÃ¢â¬â¢. Such expression of raw, unmediated emotion subverts typical Homeric ideals of role, and hence Malouf establishes that an experience of death can catalyse emotional change which transcends the more simplistic traditional expectations. Similarly, Priam, who is deeply roubled by the murder and savage desecration of his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s noble body, undergoes a significant emotional change when he receives a vision from the goddess Iris. From his role as a Ã¢â¬Ëceremonial figureheadÃ¢â¬â¢ who Ã¢â¬Ëstands still at the centreÃ¢â¬â¢, his radical plan can be also be attributed to the significant turmoil he experienced as he watched his son being brutally dragged under the city walls. Priam undergoes such a change that even Hecuba, Ã¢â¬Ëwho knows all [his] doubts and foibles, is shocked by his seemingly outrageous plan to ransom HectorÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Hence, Malouf demonstrates the extent of change which can be caused by the heartache associated with loss. The overwhelming power of death in inducing change in humans is advocated throughout Ransom, as Malouf parallels the resulting heartache felt by men, and hence foreshadows the forthcoming unity that men can form over their common experience. SomaxÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the loss of his children is juxtaposed with that of both Achilles and Priam who are extraordinary people living extraordinary lives. Somax is the epitome of simpleness, of humility as he Ã¢â¬Ëis dazzled by the whitenessÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëhangs his headÃ¢â¬â¢. Being Ã¢â¬ËA simple folk like himÃ¢â¬â¢, Somax is unable to provide for his children as Priam can. He cannot grieve as Priam does as when Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢s done, the fleas go biting and the sun comes up againÃ¢â¬â¢. Having said this, both can relate to being fathers and to Ã¢â¬Ëknowing what it is like to lose a sonÃ¢â¬â¢. Somax too, Ã¢â¬Ëhas a broken heartÃ¢â¬â¢ as he Ã¢â¬Ëstares off into the distanceÃ¢â¬â¢ and the pain he feels for watch lost son and daughter is palpable. Malouf utilises this connection to highlight the way in which everyone experiences loss in a similar way, no matter status, origin or wealth. The ability to respond to loss varies from person to person, but the reaction of utter sadness is felt by everyone who experiences such tragedy. In the patriarchal society of 8th century Greece, social and class structures played a major role on the lives of its inhabitants, yet through the sharing of their common experience of death, Priam and Somax are able to overcome them to form a basic human connection. At the end of part 2, Malouf chooses to emphasise the contrast between the two men by juxtaposing the regal Ã¢â¬Ëhigh onesÃ¢â¬â¢ with the Ã¢â¬Ërough-cutÃ¢â¬â¢ Somax. The significant difference between the two men is highlighted when what Somax perceives as a Ã¢â¬ËchickenhawkÃ¢â¬â¢ is referred to by his royal company as Ã¢â¬ËJoveÃ¢â¬â¢s emblemÃ¢â¬â¢. Hence, Malouf emphasises the disparity between the Ã¢â¬Ërepresentational, idealÃ¢â¬â¢ world of Priam with the more Ã¢â¬ËearthlyÃ¢â¬â¢ Somax. However, once the two men leave their ordinary surroundings and set off on their journey, they are able to connect through the Ã¢â¬Ëfellow-feelingÃ¢â¬â¢ of a Ã¢â¬ËfatherÃ¢â¬â¢. In fact, from the very first interaction between the two men, Malouf shows that they find common ground as fathers, with Priam mistaking the physical ransom for his restored son. Immediately, SomaxÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëheart softensÃ¢â¬â¢, as he empathises with the feelings of a lost son. This is further compounded through SomaxÃ¢â¬â¢s vivid and emotive recollections of his sonsÃ¢â¬â¢ deaths, which results in PriamÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëeyes moisten[ing]Ã¢â¬â¢. Priam, who was previously held aloof from truly human interactions in his role as king is finally able to express honest emotion, predominantly catalysed by the evocations of the tragic deaths of SomaxÃ¢â¬â¢s sons. Through this newfound unity which these two men share through their tragic experiences of their sonsÃ¢â¬â¢ death, Priam is able to be Ã¢â¬ËrestoredÃ¢â¬â¢ as Ã¢â¬Ëa man remadeÃ¢â¬â¢. In doing so, Malouf endorses the ideal that men can forge connections based on common experience, of which the most intrinsic is death. Malouf demonstrates the liberation achieved when one can finally accept their death, a Ã¢â¬Ëfee paid in advanceÃ¢â¬â¢ for mortals. He suggests that grief can only be sated when one truly accepts the undeniable nature of death as a part of the human life cycle. The release of this outrage is the source of monumental emotional change, as shown by the shift in AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking. Hector, as an Ã¢â¬Ëimplacable enemyÃ¢â¬â¢ to Achilles is ultimately Ã¢â¬Ëno longer an affrontÃ¢â¬â¢ to him as they sit in Ã¢â¬Ëperfect amityÃ¢â¬â¢, demonstrating the extent of AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ change. Where initially he could not even entertain the thought of respect for PatroclusÃ¢â¬â¢ killer, through his meeting with Priam he understands the value of honour in death, and is united not only to Priam, but also to Hector himself. This change can also be attributed to the effects of the modern re-assessment of The Illiad, where the traditional black-and-white world the characters inhabit changes dynamically into a shifting one, where conventional roles become less defined. Through this confrontation, Malouf is able to reiterate that Ã¢â¬Å"death is in our natureÃ¢â¬ ¦ and for that reasonÃ¢â¬ ¦ we should have pity for one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s lossesÃ¢â¬ , thus alluding to the inevitability of death, and the power acceptance of this fate can have on drastically changing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Why we have a House and a Senate Why do we have two chambers in Congress, the House and Senate? Since members of both are elected by, and represent the people, wouldn't the lawmaking process be more efficient if bills were considered by only one body? While it may appear clumsy and often overly time-consuming, the two-chamber or "bicameral" setup of Congress works today exactly the way a majority of the Founding Fathers envisioned in 1787. Clearly expressed in the Constitution is the Founders' belief that power should be shared among all units of government. Dividing Congress into two chambers, with the positive vote of both required to approve legislation, is a natural extension of the Founders' concept of employing "checks and balances" to prevent tyranny. The Founding Fathers explain the formation of Congress to the people in the Federalist Papers 52-66. Why are the House and Senate so Different? Have you ever noticed that major bills are often debated and voted on by the House in a single day, while the Senate's deliberations on the same bill take weeks? Again, this reflects the Founding Fathers' intent that the House and Senate not be carbon-copies of each other. By designing differences into the House and Senate, the Founders assured that all legislation would be carefully considered, taking both the short and long-term effects into account. Why are the Differences Important? The Founders intended that the House be seen as more closely representing the will of the people than the Senate. To this end, they provided that members of the House - U.S. Representatives - be elected by and represent limited groups of citizens living in small geographically defined districts within each state. Senators, on the other hand, are elected by and represent all voters of their state. When the House considers a bill, individual members tend to base their votes primarily on how the bill might impact the people of their local district, while Senators tend to consider how the bill would impact the nation as a whole. This is just as the Founders intended. All members of the House are up for election every two years. In effect, they are always running for election. This insures that members will maintain close personal contact with their local constituents, thus remaining constantly aware of their opinions and needs, and better able to act as their advocates in Washington. Elected for six-year terms, Senators remain somewhat more insulated from the people, thus less likely to be tempted to vote according to the short-term passions of public opinion. By setting the constitutionally-required minimum age for Senators at 30, as opposed to 25 for members of the House, the Founders hoped Senators would be more likely to consider the long-term effects of legislation and practice a more mature, thoughtful and deeply deliberative approach in their deliberations. Setting aside the validity of this "maturity" factor, the Senate undeniably does take longer to consider bills, often brings up points not considered by the House and just as often votes down bills passed easily by the House. A famous (though perhaps fictional) simile often quoted to point out the differences between the House and Senate involves an argument between George Washington, who favored having two chambers of Congress and Thomas Jefferson, who believed a second chamber to be unnecessary. The story goes that the two Founders were arguing the issue while drinking coffee. Suddenly, Washington asked Jefferson, "Why did you pour that coffee into your saucer?" "To cool it," replied Jefferson. "Even so," said Washington, "we pour legislation into the senatorial saucer to cool it."