Saturday, December 28, 2019
SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s taste for psychoactive substances is attested to in the earliest human records. Drug use and abuse is as old as mankind; humans have always had an inclination towards ingesting substances that make them feel stimulated, relaxed, or euphoric. In the past, the general population has used psychoactive substances for religious and ceremonial, medicinal and recreational purposes in a socially approved way. Our forbearers refined more potent compounds and devised faster routes of administration, which made these drugs easier to consume, which began the social stigmatization attached to varying substances. The complex causation of psychoactive substance use is reflected in the frequent pendulum swings between opposing attitudes on issues that are constantly being debated. Some examples are: is substance abuse a sin or a disease? Is addiction caused by the substance, the individual s vulnerability and psychology, or social factors? Which substances should be regulated and w hich should be freely available? Why are some drugs normalized while others are deemed unacceptable? Some substances were shut out of Western society because their production and consumption served only recreational purposes that did not align with Protestant ethic values, and did not contribute to the further development of the economy. Meanwhile other drugs, mainly coffee became a necessary staple in Western societyÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life. There are several reasons why society has come to accept caffeine (inShow MoreRelatedReaction Paper On Limitless1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe movie Eddie comes across a substance called Ã¢â¬Å"NZTÃ¢â¬ . This substance turned out to be a drug that could unleash his untapped cognitive potential. Within one day of taking the pill he was able to complete the stalled book and create his formula which later allowed him to become an enigma on Wall Street. The premise of the movie is very interesting for people who have looked at pushing their cognitive limits. This movie has drawn comparisons to the stimulant psychoactive drugs Adderall and ModafinilRead MoreEssay about Marijuana Should Not Be Legalized680 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMarijuana is a green or brown mix of preserved, crushed leaves from the marijuana plant. A psychoactive drug, marijuana contains fifty-percent more tar than tobacco. Smoking the harmful plant can damage the brain, lungs, and the male reproductive system and may es calate the effects of epilepsy and psychosis (Kahler, 1988). Within campus colleges and universities, there are a lot of students who are using marijuana recreationally. Long-term marijuana use can induce negative effects on short-term memoryRead MoreCaffeine Synthesis1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmost consumed psychoactive substance in the worldÃ¢â¬ (Ruxton How is this instead (Caffeine is especially common throughoutÃ¢â¬ ¦) 15). It is found very especially commonly throughout every day foods and consumed mostly though through coffee, tea, soda, and chocolate (Spiller 200). Many Americans participate in the use of caffeine; it is estimated that 90% of adults in the United States drink caffeinated beverages (Yang 245). How does this effect people though? Caffeine is a substance, even consideredRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespatients who are prescribed the medication. Within her article, Healy briefly discussed some health effects of the psychoactive chemical within cannabis, otherwise known as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, since her article was published researchers have discovered different chemicals within the plant which can possibly help with other symptoms. Cannabidiol, (CBD) the non-psychoactive plant in marijuana has been used to treat patients with epilepsy in order to improve their symptoms. Devinski etRead MoreThe American War On Drugs1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnationwide survey from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) revealed that 18.9 million (7.3 percent) of Americans 12 to 17 years old had used marijuana in the prior month. Cannabis is in fact an extremely popular recreational drug around the world, just behind alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco. TetrahydrocannabinolÃ¢â¬â¢s (THC) primary psychoactive effect is a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, forms of euphoria. Secondary psychoactive effects of THC are that ofRead MoreGambling : When It s Not All Fun And Games Essay1627 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGambling: When itÃ¢â¬â¢s Not all Fun and Games In the past decade, gaming and gambling in the United States have experienced a great upswing. The majority of states have expanded legalized gaming, including regulated casino-style games and lotteries, there has been a huge increase in the opening of Native American casinos and among other things, online gambling and betting has become increasingly more popular (Humphrey). While at first glance, this may seem to be a good thing, it is imperative that oneRead MoreEssay On Caffeine1241 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdrowsiness, headaches, and migraines. Too much caffeine can give you headaches. Caffeine has some dangerous effects that may affect your heath.Ã¢â¬ Site: www.healthline.com and www.mindbodyandgreen.com IS caffeine an addictive drug, and should it be regulated? Ã¢â¬Å"Caffeine is defined as a drug because it stimulates the central nervous system causing increased alertness. Caffeine gives most people a temporarily energy boost and elevates mood.Ã¢â¬ Kidshealth.org/in/ teens/caffeine.html Ã¢â¬ ¢ How does caffeineRead MoreReforming Marijuana: Marijuana Should Be Legalized792 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"MarijuanaÃ¢â¬ the first thing that comes into the mind is that its a drug which is illegal. Some people believe that the only use of marijuana plant is that it can get you high, which isnt true. The Marijuana, cannabis, or hemp plant is one of the oldest psychoactive plants known to man. Many people fail to realize that marijuana has a history of more than 8000 years and it has only been illegal for a short period of time. Its history dates back as far as 6000 B.C , when cannabis seeds were used as food inRead MoreUsing Vaporizing Pens Are Becoming A Very Popular Trend Essay1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescannabinoids could lead to environmental and passive contamination.Ã¢â¬ People can mix in synthetic marijuana into e-liquids and can be inhaled through a pen-sized vaporizer. Not only can people smoke cannabis out of vaporizer pens, they can also smoke psychoactive drugs such as, methamphetamine, cocaine, heroin, or bath salts (cathinones). According to Paul Tchounwou (2015), Ã¢â¬Å"Very recently, drug users have discovered a method of adapting e-cigs to vaporize a potent hallucinogen known as dimethyltrptamineRead MoreWhat Are The Seven New Dangerous Drugs1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) recently revealed that new psychoactive substances are emerging in the market in terms of both quantity and diversity. However, the paucity of data on the harmfulness and prevalence of these substances offer a challenge in facilitating risk assessment at the international level. Here are the seven new dangerous drugs that are gaining traction and notoriety: Acetylfentanyl Acetylfentanyl is a derivative of fentanyl. It has been used as a substitute
Thursday, December 19, 2019
The excavation and discovery of TutankhamunÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb was as a result of the efforts of the Archaeologist Howard Carter and his team. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of the tomb came by finding steps to the burial near the entrance to the tomb Ramses VI. The subsequent excavated of the site by Carter and his team revealed the greatest ever treasure found from an Egyptian tomb and showed the existence of Tutankhamun. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s methodology for the excavation was that of maintaining records for each artefact and that every artefact that was brought out of the tomb was preserved appropriately. The discovery and excavation of the tomb was a long and complex process but with it revealed much about Tutankhamun. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of the tomb came by finding stepsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This approach to the opening of the chamber demonstrates CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s caution that he took into the excavation of TutankhamunÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb and the transportation of the contents that was inside it. Carter opened the burial chamber and when he did he was confronted by the golden walls and two large statues Ã¢â¬Å"So enormous was this structure (17 feet by 11 feet, and 9 feet high, we found out afterwards) that it filled within a little the entire area of the chamberÃ¢â¬ gives an accurate description of these statues and an accurate account of the amount of artefacts that were found in TutankhamunÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb. CarterÃ¢â¬â¢s methodology for the excavation was that of maintaining records for each artefact and that every artefact that was brought out of the tomb was preserved appropriately. Carter methodology involved the referencing of every item found, where it was found in the tomb, preservation of the item and its conservation. Photographs were also taken of the artefactsShow MoreRelatedEssay on King Tut991 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespharaoh today because of the discovery of his tomb and his treasures. King TutÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb was a major discovery of the 19th century. It was a phenomenal discovery that made headlines across the world. Up until the discovery of King TutÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb, it was believed that all royal tombs had been robbed and drained of their treasure. The Discovery Tutankhamuns tomb was discovered in the Valley of the Kings KV62 on November 4, 1922 by the British Egyptologist Howard Carter. The Tomb was discovered near theRead MoreExplain the Archaeological/Written Evidence of the Uniqueness of TutankhamunÃ¢â¬â¢s Tomb in the Eighteenth Dynasty.1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof TutankhamunÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb in the Eighteenth Dynasty. Tutankhamun was an Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh whose legacy extends to the present, and currently one of the best-known ancient Egyptians of all-time. The Ã¢â¬Å"Boy KingÃ¢â¬ inherited the throne at the age of nine, his reign lasting only ten years before his sudden unexpected death. The traditional burial customs and funeral processions were carried out upon him, but the tomb he was laid to rest in was unique from the typical Eighteenth Dynasty tombs characterisedRead MoreThe Fascination Regarding the Mummys Curse705 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn 1922, Howard Carter opened the Tomb of Tutankhamun and sparked a wave of popular and scholarly interest in Egyptology. After the Carter discovery, a team of archaeologists and their assistants arrived for the proper dig. Although Carter fared fine, six of the 26 members of the subsequent dig died within a decade of their participation in the endeavor. The leader of the archaeological expedition, Lord Carnaveron, died of blood poisoning. Becaus e quite a few of the team members died within a relativelyRead MoreWhat Was Known About The Site Before Its Discovery?1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬ ¢ What was known about the site before its discovery? Before the first known recording of Ur by Pietro Della Valle in 1625, there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t much known about the site. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until the early 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s that it was officially identified as the site of Ur which was due to the discovery of the Ziggurat of Ur by John George Taylor . The remains of the Ziggurat were first described by William Kennett Loftus, a Geologist and archaeologist from Newcastle, in the early 19th century. Ã¢â¬ ¢ How it was discovered andRead MoreThe Excavation Of King Tut s Tomb951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesknowledge about the world of the past is opened. The Colosseum built under the reign of Emperor Vespasian of Rome and the GÃ ¶bekli Tepe of the Neolithic Era prevail as one of the most extraordinary structures of the ancient world (#). The excavation of King TutÃ¢â¬â¢s tomb further unveils valuable information about life in ancient Egypt. An architectural structure like the Colosseum reflects the values and cultures of the ancient Roman civilization. This freestanding elliptical amphitheater has the capacityRead MoreControversial Issues in Archaelogy1011 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin museums. While the field of archaeology is exciting, and the idea of partaking in perilous adventures may seem alluring, the archaeologist was depicted in an incorrect manner. An archaeologist is someone who studies human history through the excavation of sites and the examination of artifacts. Archaeologis ts study the past to learn more about the lives and cultures of people before. The science of archaeology is a relatively new and quickly growing field; yet, as expected with science, numerousRead MoreEssay on Miol2911 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages25/3 HISTORY, ARCHAEOLOGY AND SCIENCE Term 2: Monday 29/4/13 Ã¢â¬â Friday 28/6/13 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 29/4 6/5 Week 10 1/4 8/4 TUTANKHAMUNÃ¢â¬â¢S TOMB TASK 1 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 20/5 13/5 Week 11 27/5 3/6 10/6 17/6 24/6 TASK 2 HOMER AND THE TROJAN WAR TUTÃ¢â¬â¢S TOMB THERA Task Term 3: Monday 15/7/13 Ã¢â¬â Friday 20/9/13 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 15/7 22/7 29/7 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Read MoreTomb 10A1957 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesTomb 10A was discovered near the Nile River in a region known as Deir el-Bersha (The Secrets of Tomb 10A: Egypt 2000 BC 2009). It is the 4,000 year old resting place of a governor and his wife, both of whom ruled during the 11th or 12th dynasty and are named Djehutynakht. After the tomb was excavated in 1915 by archaeologists from Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston (MFA), it was clear that what they had found was a consummate archetype of traditional Egyptian burial practices
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
The power of death as a common experience for mortals is further compounded as Malouf advocates that men, even from different socio-economic backgrounds can forge a connection based on their similar emotions, as depicted through PriamÃ¢â¬â¢s connection with the Ã¢â¬ËordinaryÃ¢â¬â¢ carter, Somax. Death, as the final experience of all mortals, is shown to be able to catalyse deeply human connections between men, through which Malouf draws an allusion to the cyclical nature of life and death. Malouf begins his novel by demonstrating the overarching significance of death, and the emotional turmoil it causes, especially to those close to it. Achilles is first displayed not as a mighty warrior, as one would expect from The Illiad, but as a Ã¢â¬ËmanÃ¢â¬â¢, looking out to the shore, with his mind as Ã¢â¬Ëthe most active part of himÃ¢â¬â¢. Malouf immediately signals his own interpretation of the text, as he details emotional transformations that are the result of such underlying turmoil. Malouf here demonstrates that the seemingly impenetrable warrior Achilles, who had learnt Ã¢â¬Ënever to betray what he feltÃ¢â¬â¢, can experience truly human emotions. The murder of Patroclus on the battlefield serves as an emotional trigger for Achilles, who is reduced to Ã¢â¬Ëweep[ing] without restraintÃ¢â¬â¢. Such expression of raw, unmediated emotion subverts typical Homeric ideals of role, and hence Malouf establishes that an experience of death can catalyse emotional change which transcends the more simplistic traditional expectations. Similarly, Priam, who is deeply roubled by the murder and savage desecration of his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s noble body, undergoes a significant emotional change when he receives a vision from the goddess Iris. From his role as a Ã¢â¬Ëceremonial figureheadÃ¢â¬â¢ who Ã¢â¬Ëstands still at the centreÃ¢â¬â¢, his radical plan can be also be attributed to the significant turmoil he experienced as he watched his son being brutally dragged under the city walls. Priam undergoes such a change that even Hecuba, Ã¢â¬Ëwho knows all [his] doubts and foibles, is shocked by his seemingly outrageous plan to ransom HectorÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Hence, Malouf demonstrates the extent of change which can be caused by the heartache associated with loss. The overwhelming power of death in inducing change in humans is advocated throughout Ransom, as Malouf parallels the resulting heartache felt by men, and hence foreshadows the forthcoming unity that men can form over their common experience. SomaxÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the loss of his children is juxtaposed with that of both Achilles and Priam who are extraordinary people living extraordinary lives. Somax is the epitome of simpleness, of humility as he Ã¢â¬Ëis dazzled by the whitenessÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëhangs his headÃ¢â¬â¢. Being Ã¢â¬ËA simple folk like himÃ¢â¬â¢, Somax is unable to provide for his children as Priam can. He cannot grieve as Priam does as when Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢s done, the fleas go biting and the sun comes up againÃ¢â¬â¢. Having said this, both can relate to being fathers and to Ã¢â¬Ëknowing what it is like to lose a sonÃ¢â¬â¢. Somax too, Ã¢â¬Ëhas a broken heartÃ¢â¬â¢ as he Ã¢â¬Ëstares off into the distanceÃ¢â¬â¢ and the pain he feels for watch lost son and daughter is palpable. Malouf utilises this connection to highlight the way in which everyone experiences loss in a similar way, no matter status, origin or wealth. The ability to respond to loss varies from person to person, but the reaction of utter sadness is felt by everyone who experiences such tragedy. In the patriarchal society of 8th century Greece, social and class structures played a major role on the lives of its inhabitants, yet through the sharing of their common experience of death, Priam and Somax are able to overcome them to form a basic human connection. At the end of part 2, Malouf chooses to emphasise the contrast between the two men by juxtaposing the regal Ã¢â¬Ëhigh onesÃ¢â¬â¢ with the Ã¢â¬Ërough-cutÃ¢â¬â¢ Somax. The significant difference between the two men is highlighted when what Somax perceives as a Ã¢â¬ËchickenhawkÃ¢â¬â¢ is referred to by his royal company as Ã¢â¬ËJoveÃ¢â¬â¢s emblemÃ¢â¬â¢. Hence, Malouf emphasises the disparity between the Ã¢â¬Ërepresentational, idealÃ¢â¬â¢ world of Priam with the more Ã¢â¬ËearthlyÃ¢â¬â¢ Somax. However, once the two men leave their ordinary surroundings and set off on their journey, they are able to connect through the Ã¢â¬Ëfellow-feelingÃ¢â¬â¢ of a Ã¢â¬ËfatherÃ¢â¬â¢. In fact, from the very first interaction between the two men, Malouf shows that they find common ground as fathers, with Priam mistaking the physical ransom for his restored son. Immediately, SomaxÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëheart softensÃ¢â¬â¢, as he empathises with the feelings of a lost son. This is further compounded through SomaxÃ¢â¬â¢s vivid and emotive recollections of his sonsÃ¢â¬â¢ deaths, which results in PriamÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëeyes moisten[ing]Ã¢â¬â¢. Priam, who was previously held aloof from truly human interactions in his role as king is finally able to express honest emotion, predominantly catalysed by the evocations of the tragic deaths of SomaxÃ¢â¬â¢s sons. Through this newfound unity which these two men share through their tragic experiences of their sonsÃ¢â¬â¢ death, Priam is able to be Ã¢â¬ËrestoredÃ¢â¬â¢ as Ã¢â¬Ëa man remadeÃ¢â¬â¢. In doing so, Malouf endorses the ideal that men can forge connections based on common experience, of which the most intrinsic is death. Malouf demonstrates the liberation achieved when one can finally accept their death, a Ã¢â¬Ëfee paid in advanceÃ¢â¬â¢ for mortals. He suggests that grief can only be sated when one truly accepts the undeniable nature of death as a part of the human life cycle. The release of this outrage is the source of monumental emotional change, as shown by the shift in AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking. Hector, as an Ã¢â¬Ëimplacable enemyÃ¢â¬â¢ to Achilles is ultimately Ã¢â¬Ëno longer an affrontÃ¢â¬â¢ to him as they sit in Ã¢â¬Ëperfect amityÃ¢â¬â¢, demonstrating the extent of AchillesÃ¢â¬â¢ change. Where initially he could not even entertain the thought of respect for PatroclusÃ¢â¬â¢ killer, through his meeting with Priam he understands the value of honour in death, and is united not only to Priam, but also to Hector himself. This change can also be attributed to the effects of the modern re-assessment of The Illiad, where the traditional black-and-white world the characters inhabit changes dynamically into a shifting one, where conventional roles become less defined. Through this confrontation, Malouf is able to reiterate that Ã¢â¬Å"death is in our natureÃ¢â¬ ¦ and for that reasonÃ¢â¬ ¦ we should have pity for one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s lossesÃ¢â¬ , thus alluding to the inevitability of death, and the power acceptance of this fate can have on drastically changing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Why we have a House and a Senate Why do we have two chambers in Congress, the House and Senate? Since members of both are elected by, and represent the people, wouldn't the lawmaking process be more efficient if bills were considered by only one body? While it may appear clumsy and often overly time-consuming, the two-chamber or "bicameral" setup of Congress works today exactly the way a majority of the Founding Fathers envisioned in 1787. Clearly expressed in the Constitution is the Founders' belief that power should be shared among all units of government. Dividing Congress into two chambers, with the positive vote of both required to approve legislation, is a natural extension of the Founders' concept of employing "checks and balances" to prevent tyranny. The Founding Fathers explain the formation of Congress to the people in the Federalist Papers 52-66. Why are the House and Senate so Different? Have you ever noticed that major bills are often debated and voted on by the House in a single day, while the Senate's deliberations on the same bill take weeks? Again, this reflects the Founding Fathers' intent that the House and Senate not be carbon-copies of each other. By designing differences into the House and Senate, the Founders assured that all legislation would be carefully considered, taking both the short and long-term effects into account. Why are the Differences Important? The Founders intended that the House be seen as more closely representing the will of the people than the Senate. To this end, they provided that members of the House - U.S. Representatives - be elected by and represent limited groups of citizens living in small geographically defined districts within each state. Senators, on the other hand, are elected by and represent all voters of their state. When the House considers a bill, individual members tend to base their votes primarily on how the bill might impact the people of their local district, while Senators tend to consider how the bill would impact the nation as a whole. This is just as the Founders intended. All members of the House are up for election every two years. In effect, they are always running for election. This insures that members will maintain close personal contact with their local constituents, thus remaining constantly aware of their opinions and needs, and better able to act as their advocates in Washington. Elected for six-year terms, Senators remain somewhat more insulated from the people, thus less likely to be tempted to vote according to the short-term passions of public opinion. By setting the constitutionally-required minimum age for Senators at 30, as opposed to 25 for members of the House, the Founders hoped Senators would be more likely to consider the long-term effects of legislation and practice a more mature, thoughtful and deeply deliberative approach in their deliberations. Setting aside the validity of this "maturity" factor, the Senate undeniably does take longer to consider bills, often brings up points not considered by the House and just as often votes down bills passed easily by the House. A famous (though perhaps fictional) simile often quoted to point out the differences between the House and Senate involves an argument between George Washington, who favored having two chambers of Congress and Thomas Jefferson, who believed a second chamber to be unnecessary. The story goes that the two Founders were arguing the issue while drinking coffee. Suddenly, Washington asked Jefferson, "Why did you pour that coffee into your saucer?" "To cool it," replied Jefferson. "Even so," said Washington, "we pour legislation into the senatorial saucer to cool it."
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Sociology Personal Statement for a GraduateÃ¢â¬â¢s Program Essay Sociology, which sometimes also refers as social science, deals with the scientific study of society. By using numerous types of pragmatic examinations and critical analysis, a sociologist analyze how humans interact with each other or simply how they interact with the society. There are different areas of sociology each examine a unique perspective of humans or society such as social organization that deals with the study of numerous groups, institutes or organizations and social psychology that deals with the study of collective behavior of humans and their attitudes or personalities. To become a sociologist you will first need to complete your graduate from a prospective university and to get admission in that university you will need to write a sociology personal statement. A personal statement is a prerequisite that you need to tackle when you apply to any college or university. It tells the board that evaluates the applications what makes the applicant tick, how he developed an interest in sociology and why he wants to study in this university. There are some personal statements that offer the applicants to pick out their own theme such as medical or law statements. But there are also some that ask the applicant to respond to only given questions such as business related personal statements. We will write a custom essay sample on Sociology Personal Statement for a GraduateÃ¢â¬â¢s Program specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sociology Personal Statement for a GraduateÃ¢â¬â¢s Program specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sociology Personal Statement for a GraduateÃ¢â¬â¢s Program specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Nonetheless, to write an attention-grabbing sociology personal statement that can occupy a slot in your specific university, follow the below listed guidelines. First determine your potential or capability for studying sociology. List down your special skills or past experiences that shows your aptitude for this field. Tell the audience why you are the fit candidate for the sociology graduate program. What makes you special and competent to continue further studies in this field? Recall the history of your academic performance or previous experience that can act as evidence that you can handle the graduate studies in sociology in a competent manner. For instance, show them that you maintained your good performance and high grades while doing a full-time job during undergraduate. It is also important to conduct a little research on the university where you are applying for the graduation program so that you can respond them why their university is the best place for you. For instance, you can discuss their special course that you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t find in any other university and how that special course compelled you to seek admission there. Start the draft with an appealing introduction that hooks the board of the university. Open the statement with an interesting anecdote. You can also start with a quotation that gives the readers an idea about your point of view regarding sociology. Describe your qualification, work experience, inspiration or aspiration in the body of the personal statement. Since it is a sociology personal statement you need not to use any jargon but keep the writing simple. In the conclusion of the statement, reiterate the interest in the sociology field and your future goals that you have in mind.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Best Rebecca Nurse Analysis - The Crucible SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips In Arthur Miller's The Crucible, Rebecca Nurse is a prominent and respected older woman in Puritan Salem, drawn into the witchcraft trials because of her and her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s friction with the Putnams. Though she has the least stage time of any of the major characters, Rebecca is important because of the moral ideals she represents. This guide goes over what we do know about Rebecca and explains why she is so important to the play despite her limited time in the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s eye. feature image credit: Samantha Lindsay, 2016/All rights reserved. Character Introduction: Meet Rebecca Nurse Rebecca is an older woman (especially for the times) and not physically strong. "Rebecca Nurse, seventy-two, enters. She is white-haired, leaning upon her walking-stick." (Act 1, p. 23) Relationships Married to Francis Nurse, Rebecca is on good terms with pretty much everyone in The Crucible (at least at the beginning of the play). She's so highly regarded that even non-Salem dwellers like Reverend Hale have heard good things about her: "HALE: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s strange how I knew you, but I suppose you look as such a good soul should. We have all heard of your great charities in Beverly." (Act 1, p. 34) The only exception to Rebecca's genial social relationships is her relationship with the Putnam family. There's bad feeling between the Putnams and the Nurses there due to Rebecca's husband FrancisÃ¢â¬â¢s blocking PutnamÃ¢â¬â¢s candidate for minister of Salem. Miller explicitly mentions this squabble in one of his character essays interspersed in the printed play (p. 24), but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t come up in the dialogue (or at least, not in a straightforward mention). There might also be some resentment from Ann Putnam due to her high infant mortality rate vs. RebeccaÃ¢â¬â¢s many children and grandchildren, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s only briefly touched upon in the play. It's not clear if Rebecca's fertility in the face of Ann Putnam's dead children is the reason why Rebecca is ultimately accused of murdering Ann PutnamÃ¢â¬â¢s children (Act 2, p. 67), or if thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just a side-effect of the politics between the Putnamand Nurse families. What is clear, though, is that the only person Rebecca is sarcastic to inThe Crucible is Ann Putnam: "MRS. PUTNAM: This is no silly season, Rebecca. My Ruth is bewildered, Rebecca; she cannot eat.REBECCA: Perhaps she is not hungered yet." (Act 1, p. 25) With the exception of her attitude towards Goody Ann, though, Rebecca seems to think and hope for the best of people (and they strive to show it to herÃ¢â¬ ¦until the witch business starts). Other Character Traits Other than the mere physical character traits, Miller characterizes GoodyNurse using both her actions and words as well as what other people say about her (other characters and MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s own character descriptions). Saintliness The most noticeable quality about Rebecca is her saintly demeanor and her moral superiority to the other characters in the play. Miller makes this clear from the beginning, writingÃ¢â¬Å"Gentleness exudes from herÃ¢â¬ (p. 24) into the stage directions. When Rebecca is accused of witchcraft (a decidedly ungodly crime), the only justification Hale can come up with is that God has been fooled by seeming purity before: Ã¢â¬Å"Man, remember, until an hour before the Devil fell, God thought him beautiful in Heaven.Ã¢â¬ (Act 2, p. 68) Rebecca also displays high moral character through her interactions with other characters over the course of the play. She... urges Proctor not to quarrel and Ã¢â¬Å"break charityÃ¢â¬ with Parris, since no matter the manÃ¢â¬â¢s shortcomings he is still minister and thus should be respected (Act 1, p. 29). is shocked and horrified when she finds out that Goody Ann sent her daughter to consort with spirits (Act 1, p. 36). is the only one who bothers asking if HaleÃ¢â¬â¢s procedures will hurt Betty (Act 1, p. 37). wonÃ¢â¬â¢t stay to see witchcraft hunted out ("REBECCA: I wish I knew. She goes out; they feel resentful of her note of moral superiority." Act 1, p. 37). has her good name attested to by 91 people, who signed their good opinion of her in a petition (Act 3, p. 86-87). Common Discussion Question: What is the function of Rebecca Nurse in the play? Answer: Rebecca serves as the moral high point of the play. She is the yardstick against which Miller measures all other characters. Smiling face with halo from Google's Noto Project/Used under Apache license. Powerful Rebecca is one of the few women to have authority pre-witchcraft trials. We know this because Parris appeals to her to help figure out whatÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong with Betty and she is able to calm him (Ã¢â¬Å"I think sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll wake in time. Pray, calm yourselvesÃ¢â¬ Act 1, p. 25). She is also able to get John to not completely lose it (at least temporarily): Ã¢â¬Å"Pray, John, be calm. Pause. He defers to her.Ã¢â¬ (Act 1, p. 26) Rebecca's arrest causes people to feel doubt because of her power and authority in the town. As Parris worriedly tells Judges Hathorne and Danforth, Ã¢â¬Å"Let Rebecca stand upon the gibbet and send up some righteous prayer, and I fear sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll wake a vengeance upon youÃ¢â¬ (Act 4, p. 8). Parris is concerned that if it turns out Rebecca was (somehow!) unjustly accused and is killed, God will be angered and take out that anger on her condemners. Common Discussion Question: Why is Rebecca Nurse being charged with witchcraft a sign the town has finally gone insane/lost all sense/gotten out of control? Answer: Because Ã¢â¬Å"Rebecca also enjoyed the high opinion that most people had for [her husband]Ã¢â¬ (p. 24), it was a shock for her to be named a witch. She is looked up to in the first act as having the answers because of her reputation of religious devotion (Ã¢â¬Å"My wife is the very brick and mortar of the churchÃ¢â¬ Act 2, p. 67). In subsequent acts, the fact that she has been Ã¢â¬Å"condemnedÃ¢â¬ is a sign that things have gone terribly wrong in Salem. As Reverend Hale says in Act 2, Ã¢â¬Å"[I]f Rebecca Nurse be tainted, then nothingÃ¢â¬â¢s left to stop the whole green world from burning.Ã¢â¬ (Act 2, p.67) Honest GoodyNurse is the most straightforward and honest character in the play...even when it hurts her. It's hard to tell if this oblivious honesty happens because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t pick up on other people's reactions to her frank statements, or if she's oblivious because sheÃ¢â¬â¢s used to her position of authority and thus has become accustomed to saying things without fear of reprisal due to her place in the Salem social hierarchy (more on this later). Two specific instances of this are when she's fine with telling Parris that, actually, he has been driving parishioners away (Act 1, p. 27) and when she wonÃ¢â¬â¢t confess to witchcraft to save her life (Act 4, p. 129). When Does Rebecca Nurse Show Up in The Crucible? Rebecca only appears in Acts 1 and 4 ofThe Crucible (although she is mentioned in the other two acts by other characters). In Act 1, Rebecca shows up partway through the hullaballoo at ParrisÃ¢â¬â¢s house, then leaves before Hale gets to the business of questioning Betty. In Act 4, Rebecca is brought in towards the end to witness JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s confession (and ultimately, his recanting of that confession); she then goes out to hang with John Proctor. What Does Rebecca Nurse Do in The Crucible? Rebecca's first action upon entering the stage in Act 1 is to soothe Betty Parris with her very presence (Act 1, p. 24). Rebecca cautions everyone onstage against putting too much stock in Ã¢â¬Å"silly girlsÃ¢â¬ and their fancies (p. 25), warns against seeking answers in the supernatural (p. 25-26), and eventually leaves when it becomes apparent her advice is going to be ignored (p. 37). Rebecca does not appear onstage in Acts 2 and 3, but we do learn important information about her from other characters. In Act, 2, Giles Corey informs the Proctors (and the audience) that Rebecca has been charged with witchcraft (p. 67). In Act 3, Hale's identification of GoodyNurse as "Rebecca that were condemned this morning" (p. 80) lets the audience know that sometime between Acts 2 and 3, Rebecca was condemned a witch and set to hang. In Act 4, Rebecca's primary role is as a foil (and, ultimately, an inspiration) to John Proctor. Rebecca herself does not confess to witchcraft and stands by as a witness to ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"confessionÃ¢â¬ and ultimate denial of his confession (p. 129-134). Rebecca Nurse Character Analysis In this next section, I'll go into more detail about possible motivations behind Rebecca's actions. Often these'll be related to an overarching theme, like hysteria or societal pressures. I've provided quotes from the text to accompany my analysis and support my interpretations. Remember, though, that my analyses are just that - interpretations. If you can think of a different explanation and then support it using evidence from the play, then you can and should do that! Rebecca's primary motivation inThe Crucible appears to be her internal sense of what is right and what is wrong. Of all the characters in the play, she is the least affected by fear and hysteria (at least, in my opinion), and is surprised when other people are swayed (e.g. p. 129 Ã¢â¬Å"Why, John!Ã¢â¬ ). Rebecca remains strong through the course of the play; for her, doing the right thing is more important than staying alive, as she explicitly states in Act 4: Ã¢â¬Å"Why, it is a lie, it is a lie; how may I damn myself? I cannot, I cannot.Ã¢â¬ (Act 4, p. 129) Here Rebecca echoes Mary WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s "I cannot, I cannot," from the end of Act 2; instead of avowing that she cannot tell the truth (as Mary does), however, Rebecca here reaffirms that she cannot tell a lie. Ultimately, unconcern with the possible danger from hysteria is Rebecca's downfall. One instance of her not paying enough attention to other people's reactions to her is when she quiets Betty down in Act 1: MRS. PUTNAM, astonished: What have you done? Rebecca, in thought, now leaves the bedside and sits. (Act 1, p. 25). Even though Ann Putnam verbally expresses her astonishment that Betty was soothed by Rebecca's presence when Betty had previously been unresponsive to other stimuli, Rebecca completely ignores this in favor of her own thoughts. Other instances of this obliviousness can be seen when Rebecca, intentionally or not, puts down the concerns of other characters (particularly Ann Putnam) as being not worthy of further consideration. Rebecca ends up paying the price for this obliviousness and her uncompromising personal moral code with her life. TRUTH/Used under CC BY 2.0/cropped and modified from original. Common Discussion Question: Why do some people resent Rebecca and Francis Nurse? Answer: The Putnams resent that the Nurses interfered with Thomas Putnam's candidate for minister of Salem. Others may resent Francis's rise from land-renter to land-owner and Rebecca's being too saintly for her own good, as when she absents herself from Hale's witchcraft investigation in Act 1. In contrast to most of the other characters in the play, Rebecca doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem particularly motivated by pride, keeping her reputation pure, or even trying to maintain power/authority. She does keep her reputation of holiness, but this is more a side-effect than a cause: Rebecca ends up appearing so saintly because she seems above the earthly machinations and squabbles of characters like Parris and Putnam, or even above ProctorÃ¢â¬â¢s concern with admitting wrongdoing/losing face. How Does Rebecca Nurse Change Over Time? In contrast to characters like John Proctor and Reverend Hale, Rebecca doesn't show much development over the course ofThe Crucible, likely because Miller wanted to use her characteras a moral high point that everyone else in the play could be measured against. Rebecca's moral compass is never shaken, even when she is put through the crucible of the trials. She doesn't give in to HaleÃ¢â¬â¢s pleas to confess (p. 9), not because of pride, but because to do so would be lying. Similarly, Rebecca does not accuse anyone else of witchcraft - if she has too much integrity to lie about being a witch, she certainly has too much integrity to drag anyone else down with her. In addition to avoiding lies, Rebecca also shows mercy to others, even as they are weak (Proctor) or accusing her of terrible things. Even when John Proctor is falsely confessing to being a witch in Act 4, Rebecca still expresses her unhappiness in the form of wishing a positive outcome for him (Ã¢â¬Å"God send his mercy on you!Ã¢â¬ Act 4, p. 129). And unlike most of the male characters who run afoul of the court (Proctor, Giles Corey, even Reverend Hale), Rebecca doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t curse or malign those who are accusing and condemning her (e.g. Danforth). In this way, Rebecca takes responsibility for herself and maintains her high moral standing throughout the course of the play in a way no other character in The Crucible does. Rebecca Nurse Quotes from The Crucible To end this guide, I've chosen three Rebecca Nurse quotations to analyze and discuss. Ã¢â¬Å"I have eleven children, and I am twenty-six times a grandma, and I have seen them all through their silly seasons, and when it come on them they will run the Devil bowlegged keeping up with their mischief.Ã¢â¬ (Act 1, p. 25) Soon after her entrance in Act 1, Rebecca explicitly provides a rational explanation for why the girls are all acting weird: all young children have their silly times, so it's nothing out of the ordinary to worry about. Rebecca's reasoning has the weight of her experience behind it, and at this point in the play her experience as a devout matriarch still has some merit - even Parris seems temporarily convinced by this explanation for the girls' strange behavior. There's also a little bit of irony/foreshadowing in this quote because of the mention of the Devil having to keep up with "their [the girlsÃ¢â¬â¢] mischief;" in fact, during the trials, itÃ¢â¬â¢s actually the girls who claim they are being afflicted by the Devil's mischief. Ã¢â¬Å"No, you cannot break charity with your minister.Ã¢â¬ (Act 1, p. 29) Here, Rebecca's warning not toÃ¢â¬Å"break charity,Ã¢â¬ or turn against someone youÃ¢â¬â¢re supposed to honor, foreshadows the significance that the concept will have in the play. In Act 3, the concept comes up again when Giles Corey talks about how by accusing his wife of suspicious actions, he has broken charity with her (Act 3, p. 79-80). In fact, most of the people of Salem could be said to have Ã¢â¬Å"broken charityÃ¢â¬ with each other when neighbor turned against neighbor and started accusing each other of witchcraft. Ã¢â¬Å"Let you fear nothing! Another judgment waits us all!Ã¢â¬ (Act 4, p. 133) With these penultimate lines, Rebecca exhorts everyone (including the audience) to remember that the reverberations of the witchcraft trials will not simply end with the deaths of the accused witches. The "judgment" Rebecca refers to is not just everyone's judgment by God after death, but also how history will judge the witchcraft trials, and (in a meta-way) how the audience will judge the characters of The Crucible. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Want to learn more about other characters in The Crucible? Read our complete guide to the characters of The Crucible. Need to refresh yourself on the acts Rebecca appears in? We've got summaries for both Acts 1 and 4 as well as for the entire play. How does Rebecca's character fit into the themes of the play as a whole? Read our analysis of The Crucible's themes to find out! 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Thursday, November 21, 2019
International Marketing - Assignment Example We can also view it as Ã¢â¬Å"the action of acclimating a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s activities to international surroundings.Ã¢â¬ 1Strategy is the resolve of the fundamental long-standing goals of the business venture, and the embracing of courses of action and allotment of resources essential for carrying out these objectives. It consists of incorporated decisions, proceedings or tactics that will aid to realize goals. Brand strategy is used as a sunshade term to indicate the expansive range of strategic options open to the firm, together with both managerial and purposeful management strategies, product/market approaches, and diversification strategies. Main Body Step 1: Coca Cola brand topped in the 2010 list of Global Inter-brands and as the senior marketing consultant working for the brand, I hereby present a report that seeks to answer a digit of questions. Step 2: The Coca Cola brand has overtime played a vital role in the mother companyÃ¢â¬â¢s international expansion. A coherent and viable global brand architecture is a vital constituent of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s general worldwide marketing strategies because it provides structural basis for levering sturdy brands into foreign markets, ensuring assimilation of acquired brands in adding up to rationalizing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s adapted global strategies in branding. ... he global media, global retailing and outright movement of persons, goods and entities across international borders/territories has changed brand markets to constituents of emerging integrations that have not been in the picture before. Consequentially, a global firm like Coca Cola has concentrated on coordinating and integrating its existing strategies and methodologies in marketing across global markets. 3A vital element in Coca ColaÃ¢â¬â¢s International marketing strategy is the strategic branding policy that it has adopted overtime. A Strong brand like Coca Cola has helped the mother company to ascertain the firm's identity in the market, and develop an unyielding consumer franchise plus providing a weapon to defy growing retailer clout. The brand has also provided the root for other brand extensions, which further strengthen the firm's souk position and enhancement of value. 4In international markets arena, an important brand strategy for the firm is has been to use the same b rand name in different countries, leveraging brand strength across these established boundaries and maintaining local brands that respond to variant customer preferences in the local setups. A related issue has been the branding level that needs maximum emphasis, that is, corporate/house or product-level brands or a jumble of both. The innermost responsibility of branding in defining the firm's distinctiveness and its pose in intercontinental markets means that it is decisive to expand explicit and formidable international brand structural designs. This is implying identifying the dissimilar echelons of branding contained by the firm, the actual number of manufactured brands at each level on top of their product market and geographical scope. A crucial element in this branding structure is the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
What Ties Mary Shelly's Frankenstein to Tony Morrison's Sula - Essay Example This novel compares to Tony MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Sula, written in 1978. The two books have strikingly similar themes, such as Family, mystery, the pursuit of knowledge, unconventional thought and love and romance. The theme of family ties seems to best join the two novels, since it is at the heart of this theme that the novels unravel. Both Shelley and Morrison seem top agree that the family is a very important institution in the society, and that its choice to accept or reject a person has serious implications on the personÃ¢â¬â¢s self worth, conduct and final outcome. For instance, both novels reveal that the family is the most important social order. ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s begins with a narration by Robert Walton, an unsuccessful author who, in pursuit of fame, sets out on a scientific exploration of the Polar North. Captain Walton is writing a letter to his sister, Madam Margaret Walton Saville. The letter ends up being the novel Frankenstein. By indicating WaltonÃ ¢â¬â¢s background, Shelley accounts for the inconsistencies and discontinuities seen in his narrative letter. On the other hand, MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction of the Bottom, the area where Sula is set brings about a slave and his master. The slave hopes to attain a reward from his master, who has become his family. The master points to the hills, the Bottomland. The authors could not have found a stronger way to introduce their stories. ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction of a captain talking to his sister foreshadows the close ties to be identified later in the novel. Similarly, MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction foreshadows the future issues which will arise from family ties. Captain Walton explains the story of Victor as received from a dying Victor Frankenstein. It will be noted that almost throughout the novel, Shelley introduces a character by first stating their family background. VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s birth in a wealthy family from Geneva, as well as that of his brothers Ernest and Willi am point to his current situation. The death of his mother just before he joins the University inspires him to venture in to researches in Alchemy, Chemistry and Physical Sciences. He is more fascinated with how such sciences can be used to bring back the dead. ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s connection of VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death to his ambitious pursuits in the University has significance in bringing coherence to her storyline. It is also a statement that circumstances affecting our beloved ones affect our life choices. Little is said about his brothers, which is understandable in a novel setting. On the other hand, in Sula, the background of the protagonist, Nel, and antagonist, Sula, take a similar perspective. The ... chapter contrasts the families of the two. NelÃ¢â¬â¢s family upholds conventional living to the latter. The family wants her to lead a similar life, but she is not decided, even after meeting her unconventional grandmother. SulaÃ¢â¬â¢s family is the exact opposi te of NelÃ¢â¬â¢s family. Her promiscuous mother and grandmother, as well as her three adopted brothers, the deweys represent an unconventional family. Nevertheless, Nel and Sula become fierce friends in their adolescence. Morrison uses the family to show how our personality types, life beliefs and philosophies are shaped. Similarly, the contrast builds in to his conflict and later resolution.Ã Ã
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Tentative Reference List - Research Proposal Example It also contains some of the approaches that could be undertaken to prevent drug use in schools which is essential in our research recommendation. This article would provide information about the rules and consequences that should be introduced for those found using drugs in schools. It also provides information on how to manage drug related incidences. This article is important since it contains arguments on whether students should be tested for drug use. Moreover, it contains some of the evidences from court rulings that indicate whether drug testing should be undertaken in schools. This article contains information like the legal issues surrounding this research topic. People who advocate for students not to be tested for drug use use the arguments. The other information that this article contain is the reason why schools should test members of their fraternity for drug use. These are actually the arguments brought out by the people who advocate for drug testing in public schools. Zimmerman, M. A., & Schmeelk-Cone, K. H. (2003). A longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Substance Use and School Motivation among African American Youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13 (2),
Friday, November 15, 2019
Re-establishment of Native Plants by Seed Germination Re-establishment of Native Plants by Seed GerminationÃ in the State of Kuwait 1.1 Desertification Desertification and land degradation has become a matter of increasing importance both locally and globally. Due to heat fluctuations produced by climate change, arid and semi-arid areas are becoming easily susceptible and prone to desertification (Kassas, 1995). Conservation of natural desert habitats should be a priority for environmental agencies and governments especially in arid regions of the world (Stringer, 2008). Water scarcity is one of the factors provoking an increase of vegetation in arid climates, which can lead to land degradation and desertification (Dhief et al., 2009). The term desertification is used in diverse ways in the literature (Stringer, 2008). For this paper, it refers to land degradation in relation to loss of plant species diversity as well as loss of soil resources (Brown, 2003). The primary factor in the degradation of deserts is low rainfall, not to mention the huge impact on the deserts biodiversity from human activities such as camping, car racing or rallying (Brown et al., 2001), and unsupervised grazing by sheep and camels as well as the rapid increase of human population (Whitford, 2006). 1.2 Climate change and plant restoration Climate change is a global issue which is still rising and damaging our environment. Global warming is mainly caused and exacerbated by human influences and activities. Plant restoration is one way to reduce the effect of climate change (Dosery et al., 2012). Arid regions of the world are being effected by climate change the most. The issue of desertification primarily affects areas with less vegetation similar to those in desert areas (Hanafi et al., 2008) Restoration of plants to their natural habitats in arid climates with pressures from grazing and overpopulation is challenging. One way to vegetate these areas is germinating seeds of native species in lab condition to be transplanted in the desert. Plant restoration is a slow process, especially in ecosystems with unfavorable environmental conditions such as low rainfall, high evaporation rates and poor soil composition, precisely the conditions which are found in desert ecosystems (Bolling et al., 2000). Because seedbanks of desert plants can lie dormant for long periods of time, and can later germinate under favorable conditions (Brown et al., 2003) which can be replicated in lab facilities. 1.3 Seed germination and plant growth Seed germination is a process in which the seed emerges from dormancy and grows into a new plant. This occurs when environmental conditions are favourable including temperature, soil composition and water, (Derbel et al., 2007). This process is used to promote and establish plant seedlings for various desert species, which can contribute to increasing plant population for instance in arid and semi-arid climates. According to research on desert plants, temperature is one of the most important factors promoting seed germination, also it plays a big role in plant growth. Indeed, the optimal temperature for seed to germinate is usually close to the average temperature in the species natural habitat (Derbel et al., 2010). Knowledge of the life history, ecology and natural habitat of native species is important for a successful plant reestablishments. The most important part of the plant cycle is seed germination (Derbel et al.,2007). Scarification is a botanical term which refers to the process by which the coat of the seeds is opened, and it can be undertaken mechanically or chemically. Seed germination depends primarily on the level of moisture in the environment and temperature (El-Keblawy, Abdelfattah Khedr, 2015). This paper will examine seed germination treatment in the context of three different factors. The first is temperature: if the temperature is too high then the seed which has been planted for germination will die (Gorai, Laajili, Santiago Neffati, 2015). Low temperatures can also impact seed germination. The second factor which impacts seed germination is scarification of the seeds. The third factor relating to the pre-treatment of seeds for germination is soaking in water. It is important to soak the seeds in water prior to planting to give them the best chance of germinating (Gorai, Laajili, Santiago Neffati, 2015). 1.4 Use of peat moss for plant production Using peat moss to promote seed germination implies the use of stratification, which is a moist, cold treatment: this does not apply to desert plants, since they are mostly promoted by temperature and scarification[ES1]. It is reported that peat moss has growth-promoting substances, including antibiotics and oestrogens (Cox Westing, 2013). 1.5 Study area (add refrences) Kuwait is a small country located in the north-east of the Arabian Peninsula, with a total area of 17,820 km2 and a human population of 4.3 million. Kuwait borders Iraq (north) and Saudi Arabia (west and south), while the east of the country lies at the tip of the Persian Gulf, reaching its highest elevation above sea level at 280 m (Brown Al-Mazrooei, 2003).ÃâÃ The climate of Kuwait is considered an arid climate, with summer temperatures ranging from 35-50ÃâÃ ° C. Summer lasts from May to September, with the hottest temperatures occurring from June to August. Winters are dry and cool with mean temperatures ranging from 6-20ÃâÃ ° C. Rainfall varies from year to year, with an average documented rainfall of 120mm (Halwagy et al., 1982). On average, evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation on a yearly basis (Halwagy Halwagy, 1974a). 1.6 The vegetation and soils of Kuwait The vegetation cover of Kuwait is less than 10 % (Brown, 2001). The dominant plant of Kuwait isRhanterium epapposum. There has been no documentation of native trees found in the deserts of Kuwait, while only one tree (6al7a) has been recorded as a native tree and protected in nature reserves (Brown Al-Mazrooei, 2003). Soil texture and composition is an important factor for plant regeneration in desert climates. The primary soil characteristics to be considered in seed germination are soil texture, depth, permeability, penetrability and fertility (Batanouny, 1990). Sandy alkaline soils are dominant in the deserts of Kuwait, and these have low water retention, which is a disadvantage for seed germination (Johns et al., 1984). However, rainfall on sandy soils can be more effective for seed germination than on clay soils (Carbon, 1975). 1.7 Native plants Calligonum comosum Calligonum is a genus of perennial shrubs from the Polygonaceae family. One of the striking features of the species is that it is covered with numerous bristled fruits, which are easily carried by the wind, thus avoiding burial in the sand. The Latin genus name comes from the Greek words callus (beautiful) and gonos (knee), and reflects the original shape of the twigs as they link to one another (Gouja, Garnatje, Hidalgo, Neffati, Raies Garcia, 2015). Calligonum comosum is a native plant to the state of Kuwait. It is a perennial shrub which grows up to 2m tall with a crown ranging from 1-2.5m. Its leaves are simple and green. TheÃâÃ flowering season runs from March to April, with the red flowers attracting birds. The most widespread use of this plant is to stabilise sand dunes and wind breaks, but it also fixes soil to provide protein for livestock, provides wood for fuel and burns without smoke. It is one of the most common plants used to fight desertification and is usually employed along with other native plants for rehabilitation purposes. The most critical stage for this plant is seed germination and seedling stabilisation (Qu et al., 2008). It is prone to heavy grazing since it is a major source of food for camels, as well as goats and sheep (fact sheet). The active ingredients include tannins contained within the green branches of Calligonum. The fruits are edible, and taste similar to an apple. The economic significa nce of these shrubs is very high. Their young branches and fruits, with a pleasantly sour taste, are readily eaten by sheep and camels. In winter, the sheep eat fallen twigs and fruit from the ground. The nutritional value of these products is rather high in conventional feed units. The timber produced by this tree is dense and heavy (it sinks in water), and the pink kernel is a good building material in the desert environment. The wood is also used as fuel for various crafts. Finally, Calligonum is excellent fixative of sand and is used for reclamation in areas of mobile sand. The plant can form new side (adventitious) roots at the base of the stalks after backfilling them with sand (El-Keblawy, Abdelfattah Khedr, 2015). Farsetia Aegyptia This is a perennial shrub that grows in coarse sandy soil, reaching a height of up to 60 cm. Its leaves are succulent and linear, its blooming season is from March to June, and it has greenish-brown flowers. The fruit has a winged seed. This plant has no documented or official publications (Farsetia aegyptia Overview Encyclopedia of Life, 2017). Rhanterium epapposum This is the national plant of Kuwait, and the most dominant plant found in the countrys deserts. This bush grows up to 1m tall, has small narrow leaves which fall in late spring, and becomes dormant during the summer season. Its flowering season is from March to May, with small yellow flowers. For this plant to germinate, the capitulum must be facing upwards, with the achene still attached to the capitulum. Seeds can be viable for more than 4 years (Ahmed, Al-Dousari and Al-Dousari, 2016), and the plant is mainly used for skin infections and for fuel in remote areas. Calligonum comosum, which does not require a lot of water to grow and tends to grow in areas with low rainfall (Gouja, Garnatje, Hidalgo, Neffati, Raies Garcia, 2015); Rhanterium epapposum, which is bushy and is produced naturally as well as with the help of vegetation[ES2]; and Farsetia aegyptia which is also used to combat desertification with the assistance of seed germination. The main objective of this study is to determine why seed germination is important and under what conditions it can take place. The study will discuss how seed germination occurs under different conditions and the factors which affect it. Three desert plants will be used in theÃâÃ seed germination experiment The aim of this study is to induce seed germination using chemical treatments such as gibberellic acid in two different concentrations (ppm) and physical scarification treatment with two different intensity levels. The second part of the study will investigate four different ratios of peat moss to sand to measure plant growth of seedlings of three desert species in Kuwait. This study will contribute to increasing vegetation in arid and semi-arid areas such as Kuwait, and explore the conditions in which seed germination can take place, including environmental conditions and appropriate temperature (Gouja, Garnatje, Hidalgo, Neffati, Raies Garcia, 2015). As we know, the more plants are grown, the more we can protect our environment. Seed germination is one process for producing plants by artificial methods, which would participate in desert revegetation by transplanting native species back in their natural habitat. Seed germination experiment Three plants will be investigated in this study: Calligonum comosum, Rhanterium epapposum and Farsetia aegyptia. Ten seeds from each species will undergo two seed germination treatments, each with two different intensities. First is a physical treatment in the form of scarification using sand paper, with two different intensities of scarification. Second is a chemical treatment using two different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3). All treatments will be undertaken in the same environment and temperature conditions. The experiment will be replicated three times. Figure 1 Plant growth with peat moss For this experiment, seedlings from three species will be tested in five soil mixtures with different sand to peat moss ratios. A block of 15 seedlings, each with a different soil mixture (5 soil mixtures for each species) will be replicated 5 times (Figure 2).ÃâÃ Environmental factors such as temperature, soil moisture and pH will be measured for analysis. [ES3]Figure 2 A large data set will be collected over a period of 4-6 weeks, and daily logs will be completed for the final data analysis. Statistical data analysis using ANOVA will be applied to both experiments to compare the percentage of growth in different soil mixtures. As well as comparing seed germination percentages for four different treatments, ArcGIS software will be used to provide maps for this study if necessary. Petri dishes, paper filters and labels Sand paper Gibberellic acid (GA3). Native plant seeds (available at PAAFR*) Native plant seedlings (available at PAAFR*) 10cm plastic planting pots (75) (available at PAAFR*) Soil (peat moss and sand) (available at PAAFR*) Access to seed lab facility either at PAAFR* or KISR* (access fees may be applicabl For this study, safety precautions will be taken mostly when using seed lab facilities. Access lab safety check list Lab coat Long trousers Closed toe shoes Safety glasses Use of gloves Since this study will be done off campus, some expenses may apply, this is just a provisional budget plan Plane tickets (round trip from Aberdeen to Kuwait) (300 Ã £) All materials mentioned previously might be available for use with no charge Onetime payment for seed lab access of 50 Ã £ Petrol fees maybe applicable once experiment location is determined around 100 Ã £ if the experiment is done over a period of six weeks. References Bolling, J. and Walker, L. (2000). Plant and soil recovery along a series of abandoned desert roads. Journal of Arid Environments, 46(1), pp.1-24. Brown, G. (2003) Factors maintaining plant diversity in degraded areas of northern Kuwait, Journal of Arid Environments, 54(1), pp. 183-194. Brown, G. and Al-Mazrooei, S. (2003). Rapid vegetation regeneration in a seriously degraded Rhanterium epapposum community in northern Kuwait after 4 years of protection. Journal of Environmental Management, 68(4), pp.387-395. Brown, G. and Schoknecht, N. (2001) Off-road vehicles and vegetation patterning in a degraded desert ecosystem in Kuwait, Journal of Arid Environments, 49(2), pp. 413-427. Derbel, S. and Chaieb, M. (2007). Germination behaviour and seedling establishment of two desert shrubs,Calligonum polygonoides(Polygonaceae) andSpartidium saharae(Fabaceae), under experimental conditions. Acta Botanica Gallica, 154(4), pp.533-544. Derbel, S., Touzard, B., Triki, M. and Chaieb, M. (2010). Seed germination responses of the Saharan plant species Ephedra alata ssp. alenda to fungicide seed treatments in the laboratory and the field. Flora Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 205(7), pp.471-474. Dhief, A., Gorai, M., Aschi-Smiti, S. and Neffati, M. (2009) Comparative phenological and water potential patterns of three Calligonum species in the eastern great Erg of Tunisia, Flora Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 204(8), pp. 581-592. doi: 10.1016/j.flora.2008.07.007. Dosery, N.A., Mathew, M., Suresh, N. and Al-Menaie, H.S. (2012) Kuwaits agricultural efforts to mitigate climate change, Energy Procedia, 18, pp. 1441-1445 Hanafi, A. and Jauffret, S. (2008). Are long-term vegetation dynamics useful in monitoring and assessing desertification processes in the arid steppe, southern Tunisia. Journal of Arid Environments, 72(4), pp.557-572. Kassas, M. (1995). Desertification: a general review. Journal of Arid Environments, 30(2), pp.115-128. Stringer, L. (2008). Reviewing the International Year of Deserts and Desertification 2006: What contribution towards combating global desertification and implementing the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification? Journal of Arid Environments, [online] 72(11), pp.2065-2074. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140196308001742 [Accessed 19 Feb. 2017]. Whitford, W. (2006). Ecology of desert systems. 1st ed. San Diego: Academic Press, pp.275-304. [ES1]This sentence wasnt very clear please read and check it and let me know if you think Ive accidentally changed the meaning! [ES2]Not quite sure what you mean by with the help of vegetation? [ES3]I would change the title of the Figure to: Illustration showing different ratios of sand to peat for three different species
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Moon The Moon is the only natural satellite of Earth: orbit: 384,400 km from Earth diameter: 3476 km mass: 7.35e22 kg Called Luna by the Romans, Selene and Artemis by the Greeks, and many other names in other mythologies. The Moon, of course, has been known since prehistoric times. It is the second brightest object in the sky after the Sun. As the Moon orbits around the Earth once per month, the angle between the Earth, the Moon and the Sun changes; we see this as the cycle of the Moon's phases. The time between successive new moons is 29.5 days (709 hours), slightly different from the Moon's orbital period (measured against the stars) since the Earth moves a significant distance in its orbit around the Sun in that time. Due to its size and composition, the Moon is sometimes classified as a terrestrial "planet" along with Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The Moon was first visited by the Soviet spacecraft Luna 2 in 1959. It is the only extraterrestrial body to have been visited by humans. The first landing was on July 20, 1969 (do you remember where you were?); the last was in December 1972. The Moon is also the only body from which samples have been returned to Earth. In the summer of 1994, the Moon was very extensively mapped by the little spacecraft Clementine and again in 1999 by Lunar Prospector. The gravitational forces between the Earth and the Moon cause some interesting effects. The most obvious is the tides. The Moon's gravitational attraction is stronger on the side of the Earth nearest to the Moon and weaker on the opposite side. Since the Earth, and particularly the oceans, is not perfectly rigid it is stretched out along the line toward the Moon. From our perspective on the Earth's surface we see two small bulges, one in the direction of the Moon and one directly opposite. The effect is much stronger in the ocean water than in the solid crust so the water bulges are higher. And because the Earth rotates much faster than the Moon moves in its orbit, the bulges move around the Earth about once a day giving two high tides per day.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The purpose of assignments Is be able to understand the various advantages and Issues of cloud computing. Research and analyses whether or not cloud computing Is the way forward for the chosen organization. Company of choice The type of company selected here is Higher Educationalists. The Higher Educationlnstituteprovides its services in different location through its branches. It may have thousands of students and staff and has lot of sensitive data e. G. Student staffs information, lectures notes and books, student's private and personal details.Higher Education Institutions financial status, its own business Lana and strategy and so on. While moving to the cloud, Higher Education Institute may face lot of issues like legal issues, ethical issues environmental issues, security issues and so on. This assignment triesprovldingprofesslonal solution to address these mentioned Issues. Introduction Cloud computing Is a style of computing where scalable and elastic IT-enabled capableness are provided Ã¢â¬Ë as a services' to multiple external customers using internet technologies[l].In simple terms , cloud computing enables business of all sizes to quickly procure and use a wide range of enterprise-class IT systems on a pay per-use basis from anywhere at any time. Cloud computing services are divided into three classes, according to the abstraction level of the capability provided and the service model of providers. Namely (1) infrastructure as a service, (2) platform as a service, (3) Software as a Service and there are different types of cloud depending upon the network it cover they are (1) Public clouds, (2) Private Clouds (3) community clouds and (4) hybrid cloud.Each types of cloud and services provision has own characteristics, benefits and challenges and suits deferent business models and purposes however, all have similar legal Issues to consider. L] Benefits If Higher Education Institutes anticipating a huge upswing in computing need (or evening Education Institute surprised bay sudden demand), cloud computing can help institute to manage. Rather than having to buy,install, and configure new equipment,eliminates can buy additional CPU cycles or storage from third party.Since Institutions are based on consumption. Indians does not have to deal with unneeded equipment. Institute simply add or subtract based on its need. [ 1] Again, not having to buy and configure new equipment allows Institute and IT staff to eyesight to business. The cloud solution makes it possible to get application stereotypically, and It costs a fraction of what It would cost to implement an on- site solution. [ 3] The managerial and strategic level employer no needs to physically attend the Institute's site to get information.They can get Information from anywhere, which help to Increase the productivity of Institute [ 2] Legal issues: As moving tighter Distastefulness's data to the cloud, Outshoot need to comply with Data Protection act 1988. The eight principl e of Data Protection act are (1) Data should be fearfully and carefully processed. 2) Data should be processed for the specified purpose(3) The data collected should be adequate, relevant and not excessive. (4)The data should be up to date. (5) The data cannot be kept no longer than necessary. (6)The data should be processed in accordance with the individual rights. (7)The data should be kept Securely. 8)The data cannot be transferred and stored outside the European Economic Area (EYE)without adequate protection.  The Higher Educationlnstituteshould ensure that Cloud Service Provider has kept the data securely in order to preventatives unlawful processing, stolen, against accidental cost and damage. So while choosing the overnighter Educationlnstituteshould know how the cloud companies handles the personal and sensitive data. Higher Educationalists should need to consider whether or not the level of security which would be provided by Cloud Company will meet the both requirement of Higher Declassification's Data Protection Act. 6] The Data Protection Act clearly mentioned that personality should not be moved or transferred outside the European Economic Area unless there is an adequate leveler protection. Cloud provider might not always store the data in European Economic Arabesques to establish and maintain the data centre outside the European Economic Area might be cheap. Storing data outside the European Economic Area breaches the Data Protection Act. Compliance may beached busing EX. approved contract terms with cloud provider.  All the public authorities in the I-J have legal responsibilities to comply with Freedom of Information Act 2000.If Higher Educationlnstituteholds the information and if any request is made to the Higher Educationalists fortification then,Higher Educationalists should provide thrusters information to the requester within the 20 days. If suppose, by some reasons cloud computing server is failed and Higher Educationlnstitutecann ot able to access its stored information from the cloud then Higher Educationlnstitutewill face the problem. So while choosing the cloud computing service provider, it is necessary to assess their failure history of server, reputation, backup strategy and so on. 2] Intellectual property right are the right which is granted to owners of that intellectual creativity. Copyright, Patents,Database and Trademark are considered as Intellectual property. Generally, copyright protects and prevents the owner's work from copying ND reproducing. Copyright can be obtained on for example computer software program, textbook, film,teaching and research material and so on.  Higher Education Institute has also lot of intellectual property which need to be protected.The Higher Education Institute has the right to control its intellectual properties copyright, design and patents act (1988) necessarily in migration to the cloud.  Similarly, database right is another right which falls under intelle ctual property. It prevents the database from extraction, reuse of all or substantial part of the database without impressionists. 6]Higher Education Institute should prevent its own database example pay roll database, steadfastness and the database which is created by teacher or students for the learning purpose.Patent is the right to the owner which prevents others from making, using, manufacturing and selling the invented products and process without owner permission. Patents are only effective in the country where the right is granted. If the patents have been registered in the European Patents Office then it is protected in the whole Europe.  while moving to the cloud computing , It raises particular intellectual property right issue for Higher Education Institute to include before to confirming the conditions of their cloud computing provision. The issue may arise are Ã°Å¸â¢ 1) they may have access to information belonging to Institute. 2) The location of information whe re they kept is not fixed. This issue makes tighter Education Institute difficult for its intellectual property right compliance.  Annexation regarding above issue: software license may be location specific . Minored to safe guard to the resources, the Institute might have done the agreement with publisher through educational resource licenses and his agreement may only allow to access electronic resources or storage of digital material by registered users( staff and students ) through particular local server only.So while moving to the cloud, problem would be, the cloud provider mischance's threescore and they are not location specific. So agreements with resource supplier regarding access and location should be addressed Institute's contract with cloud provider and the cloud provider also need to prevents to get access and need to prevent any unwanted and unlawful usage of licensed resources As moving to the cloud adequately act 2010 places legal obligation to he Institute. Utilities need to make sure that all the students with disability have equal access of information.As moving the cloud Institute should check that the means of service provision will not adversely impact accessibility.  Environmental issue As moving to the cloud the Institute can contributes to lower the carbon foot prints. According to the by adopting the cloud computing, the consumption of energy by data centre could be reduced by thirty eight percentage by the year 2020. And such reduction on energy will reduces twenty eight percentages greenhouse gas emissions. Research also found that the smaller organization will contribute largeness's ninety percentages to reduce the carbon foot print.Whereas, bacteriologists reduces carbon foot print by thirty percentages.  Decanter are designed on echo friendly nature which use low suffer fuels to reduce emission from backup generators. These energetically lighting technology. Most of the staff in the cloud service provider is Depo sitional and they concern on designing and building an echo friendly product where as Higher Education Institute whose primary focus is to provide quality education and earning profit by increasing the number of detent. Decanter provides the infrastructure only when it is needed . T maximize the efficiency and utilization of server by sharing same server for different cloud.  Ethics and ProfessionalResponsibility: All the informational infrastructure that used to be stored locally stored to the third party animadversion cannot be directly control its data. Lost of direct control sometime gives the problem. If something happen on the data at the cloud. For example unauthorized access of data or failure in Infrastructure,eliminates cannot do anything because it is difficult to know who caused the problem. Dud service provider usually make the infrastructure by aggregating the systems and each system may owned by other company and if something goes wrong in such complex system then it is difficult to decide who has caused the problem. The data which is stored in the cloud some time used for some other purpose. For example biometric data of student which is collected for student attendance purpose, that data might be used for the criminal investigation purpose.Keeping identification to the cloud, it can feel that cloudscape provider would seem to be responsible for the data and have control over it. There might be issue of trust potentialities and cloud computing service provider There is loot of IT practitioners work in the cloud service provider. They are associates with some professional body example British Computer Society,Association for Computing Machinery, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and so on. There's day to day practice and responsibilities has been defined by associated professional body.Professional people like Database administrator of the cloud service provider has the access to the client's personal and sensitive data He is not allowed to disclose the client's data to the third party. Professional body may take the disciplinary action fortress who breach the code of conduct. BCC broadly defined its code of conduct in four categories they are (1) duty to the public (2) duty to the relevant authority, (3) duty to the profession and (4) professional competence and integrity[5 ]similarly, IEEE and ACM has also code of conduct for its member which is almost similar to Thebes code of conduct.Recommendation and conclusion: It is institute responsibilities to compliance with the legal act. So, it is recommended to check the position of cloud provider's security, data transfer and compliance tit EX. law. Penthouse applying the best efforts there may arises the dispute with cloud provider. It is recommended to choose the established cloud provider, find out theirs server location, asses suitability and agree which law applies. Identify the confidential material and find whether cloud is suitable for that data or not.Institutions should ensure that the contract terms with cloud providers reflect their legal obligations, responsibilities and the level of risk they are prepared to handle Penthouse there are lot of benefits in cloud computing, it is compulsory to aware of he ethical and legal issues and careful most be taken before agreeing any contract with cloud service provider.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Battle of Fuentes de Onoro - Peninsular War - Duke of Wellington The Battle of Fuentes de OÃ ±oro was fought May 3-5, 1811, during the Peninsular War which was part of the larger Napoleonic Wars. Armies and Commanders Allies Viscount Wellingtonapprox. 38,000 men French Marshal Andre Massenaapprox. 46,000 men Buildup to Battle Having been stopped before the Lines of Torres Vedras in late 1810, Marshal Andre Massena began withdrawing French forces from Portugal the following spring. Emerging from their defenses, British and Portuguese troops, led by Viscount Wellington, began moving towards the border in pursuit. As part of this effort, Wellington laid siege to the border cities of Badajoz, Ciudad Rodrigo, and Almeida. Seeking to regain the initiative, Massena regrouped and began marching to relieve Almeida. Concerned about the French movements, Wellington shifted his forces to cover the city and defend its approaches. Receiving reports regarding Massenas route to Almeida, he deployed the bulk of his army near the village of Fuentes de OÃ ±oro. The British Defenses Located to the southeast of Almeida, Fuentes de OÃ ±oro sat on the west bank of the Rio Don Casas and was backed by a long ridge to the west and north. After barricading the village, Wellington formed his troops along the heights with the intention of fighting a defensive battle against Massenas slightly larger army. Directing the 1st Division to hold the village, Wellington placed the 5th, 6th, 3rd, and Light Divisions on the ridge to the north, while the 7th Division was in reserve. To cover his right, a force of guerillas, led by Julian Sanchez, was positioned on a hill to the south. On May 3, Massena approached Fuentes de OÃ ±oro with four army corps and a cavalry reserve numbering around 46,000 men. These were supported a force of 800 Imperial Guard cavalry led by Marshal Jean-Baptiste BessiÃ ¨res. Massena Attacks After reconnoitering Wellingtons position, Massena pushed troops across the Don Casas and launched a frontal attack against Fuentes de OÃ ±oro. This was supported by an artillery bombardment of the Allied position. Surging into the village, troops from General Louis Loisins VI Corps clashed with troops from Major General Miles Nightingalls 1st Division and Major General Thomas Pictons 3rd Division. As the afternoon progressed, the French slowly pushed British forces back until a determined counterattack saw them thrown from the village. With night approaching, Massena recalled his forces. Unwilling to directly attack the village again, Massena spent most of May 4 scouting the enemys lines. Shifting South These efforts led to Massena discovering that Wellingtons right was largely exposed and only covered by Sanchezs men near the village of Poco Velho. Seeking to exploit this weakness, Massena began shifting forces south with the goal of attacking the next day. Spotting the French movements, Wellington directed Major General John Houston to form his 7th Division on the plain south of Fuentes de OÃ ±oro to extend the line towards Poco Velho. Around dawn on May 5, French cavalry led by General Louis-Pierre Montbrun as well as infantry from the divisions of Generals Jean Marchand, Julien Mermet, and Jean Solignac crossed the Don Casas and moved against the Allied right. Sweeping the guerillas aside, this force soon fell on Houstons men (Map). Preventing a Collapse Coming under intense pressure, the 7th Division faced being overwhelmed. Reacting to the crisis, Wellington ordered Houston to fall back to the ridge and dispatched cavalry and Brigadier General Robert Craufurds Light Division to their aid. Falling into line, Craufurds men, along with artillery and cavalry support, provided cover for the 7th Division as it conducted a fighting withdrawal. As the 7th Division fell back, the British cavalry harried the enemy artillery and engaged the French horsemen. With the battle reaching a critical moment, Montbrun requested reinforcement from Massena to turn the tide. Dispatching an aide to bring up BessiÃ ¨res cavalry, Massena was furious when the Imperial Guard cavalry failed to respond. As a result, the 7th Division was able to escape and reach the safety of the ridge. There it formed a new line, along with the 1st and Light Divisions, which extended west from Fuentes de OÃ ±oro. Recognizing the strength of this position, Massena elected not to press the attack further. To support the effort against the Allied right, Massena also launched as series of attacks against Fuentes de OÃ ±oro. These were conducted by men from General Claude Fereys division as well as General Jean-Baptiste Drouets IX Corps. Largely striking the 74th and 79th Foot, these efforts nearly succeeded in driving the defenders from the village. While a counterattack threw Fereys men back, Wellington was forced to commit reinforcements to break Drouets assault. Fighting continued through the afternoon with the French resorting to bayonet attacks. As the infantry assault on Fuentes de OÃ ±oro faltered, Massenas artillery opened with another bombardment of the Allied lines. This had little effect and by nightfall the French withdrew from the village. In the darkness, Wellington ordered his army to entrench on the heights. Faced with a strengthened enemy position, Massena elected to retreat to Ciudad Rodrigo three days later. The Aftermath In the fighting at the Battle of Fuentes de OÃ ±oro, Wellington sustained 235 killed, 1,234 wounded, and 317 captured. French losses numbered 308 killed, 2,147 wounded, and 201 captured. Though Wellington did not consider the battle to be a great victory, the action at Fuentes de OÃ ±oro allowed him to continue the siege of Almeida. The city fell to Allied forces on May 11, though its garrison successfully escaped. In the wake of the fighting, Massena was recalled by Napoleon and replaced by Marshal Auguste Marmont. On May 16, Allied forces under Marshal William Beresford clashed with the French at Albuera. After a lull in the fighting, Wellington resumed his advance into Spain in January 1812 and later won victories at Badajoz, Salamanca, and Vitoria. Sources British Battles: Battle of Fuentes de OnoroPeninsular War: Battle of Fuentes de OnoroHistory of War: Battle of Fuentes de Onoro
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
As you sit down to watch your favorite television show at night do you notice that each actor or actress has a different personality? I watch many different shows and it seems to me that each person has their own personality. Personality is a unique set of stable, ordering characteristics and patterns of behavior that influence the way a person adjusts to the environment (Moist, 2003). I feel that each person in the world each has his or her own unique personality with different characteristics. Some of the characteristics that vary from person to person are things such as motives, thoughts and emotions (Moist, 2003). Another thing that varies from person to person is his or her behavioral patterns. Some traits of different behavioral patterns are readiness to think, perceive, or act in a particular way across a variety of different situations (Moist, 2003). These are the aspects that make up the personalities of each person throughout the world. Throughout this paper I am going to be discussing three theoretical perspectives on personality, which are FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Structural theory, KaganÃ¢â¬â¢s biological theory, and Humanistic theories. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s structural theory consists of the id, ego, and the superego. The id seeks pleasure immediate impulse gratification and tension reduction and provides energy for uncontrollable biological drives; this is an unconscious process. The id also deals with the libido, which is the motive for survival and destruction (Freud, Early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s). The ego seeks reality and its role is to express and gratify desires of id in accordance with the reality requirements, this can be either a conscious or unconscious process. The ego includes rational planning and reasoning to delay gratification and is socially acceptable (Freud, Early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s). The superego seeks morality as instilled in us by parents; role is to internalize societyÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of right and wrong expressio n of id. This also includes rati... Free Essays on Personality Paper Free Essays on Personality Paper As you sit down to watch your favorite television show at night do you notice that each actor or actress has a different personality? I watch many different shows and it seems to me that each person has their own personality. Personality is a unique set of stable, ordering characteristics and patterns of behavior that influence the way a person adjusts to the environment (Moist, 2003). I feel that each person in the world each has his or her own unique personality with different characteristics. Some of the characteristics that vary from person to person are things such as motives, thoughts and emotions (Moist, 2003). Another thing that varies from person to person is his or her behavioral patterns. Some traits of different behavioral patterns are readiness to think, perceive, or act in a particular way across a variety of different situations (Moist, 2003). These are the aspects that make up the personalities of each person throughout the world. Throughout this paper I am going to be discussing three theoretical perspectives on personality, which are FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Structural theory, KaganÃ¢â¬â¢s biological theory, and Humanistic theories. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s structural theory consists of the id, ego, and the superego. The id seeks pleasure immediate impulse gratification and tension reduction and provides energy for uncontrollable biological drives; this is an unconscious process. The id also deals with the libido, which is the motive for survival and destruction (Freud, Early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s). The ego seeks reality and its role is to express and gratify desires of id in accordance with the reality requirements, this can be either a conscious or unconscious process. The ego includes rational planning and reasoning to delay gratification and is socially acceptable (Freud, Early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s). The superego seeks morality as instilled in us by parents; role is to internalize societyÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of right and wrong expressio n of id. This also includes rati...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Idea of Freedom and to be American in Bradford's, Franklin's, and Crevecoeur's Writings - Essay Example Bradford had narrated the happenings upon the immigration of the Puritans into the Plymouth Plantation through this writing. Bradford, along with the Pilgrims, left England to experience religious freedom in America. It was the freedom of religion that brought the Pilgrims to Plymouth Plantation, and William Bradford was one of the Pilgrims, who boarded the Mayflower to experience that freedom. He left his country and led a European Settlement in America, for it was the only place, back then, where his religious freedom will not be deprived. Despite the imminent risks, Bradford, together with other Pilgrims, fled to America with no assurance of safety, only to experience religious freedom, a freedom that they ought to gain under the rules of the Mayflower Compact. As stated in his manuscript, Ã¢â¬Å"one small candle may light a thousand, so the light here kindled shall shine unto manyÃ¢â¬ (Bradford). In the Ã¢â¬Å"The AutobiographyÃ¢â¬ of Benjamin Franklin, a different type of freedom was emphasized, which supports the individual freedom of business and the economy in America. Franklin was dubbed as the first authentic American for he was firm in his stand to uphold colonial unity. His establishment of the Junto intended to demonstrate how the improvement of the American society can be achieved through business and economic freedom. In the above passage, he refers to the benefits of education that libraries have provided the citizens of the country. He has further added that libraries have somehow contributed to the response of the citizens in various colonies, especially in defending their privileges (Franklin). Tradesmen and farmers need access to these libraries for them to make appropriate decisions for their business. By that time, they make their own business successful and eventually contribute to the growth of the economy. This gives the liberty to help America progress and become an authentic American. Hector St. John
Friday, November 1, 2019
Evaluate the problems and improvement of performance management system implementation - Essay Example In order to understand the concept of performance management system, it is critical to analyze its general regards in performance. There is a consideration of the process of performance management as a cycle in general performance planning, performance coaching, and performance appraisal and performance feedback. The overall purpose of performance management is to ensure that the organization is working together with its subsystems in an optimum fashion to achieve the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Given the low rating of the performance management system among employees, it is necessary to undertake a thorough analysis to realize the reason for the low ratings. Therefore, this research focuses on the performance management system in the organization internal context. In the main body, the study puts forward the problems arising in the designing and implementation of a performance management system. The paper does this by separately considering the problems that can arise in the design of a performance management system and then follows this with an explanation of problems that can arise in the implementation of the system. Further, the paper evaluates measures that can lead to improvement in the performance management system. The article aims at contributing to the development of the performance management system through exploring the problems of the performance management system in the practical application. Designing and the implementation of the performance management system are not an easy task and require a combined of effort by the Human Resource Managers. There are a number of potential challenges encountered in achieving a fit that is best for the organization and ensuring an effective and efficient implementation of Performance Management System. Some of the intricate problems that can occur in the design of performance management
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Reading notes - Essay Example All he wants is to lure Florinda so that he can bed her. However, Florinda is not ready for that. He then tries to rape her, but Belvile appears. That stops the sexual abuse, but Willmore discourages Florinda from reporting the matter to the police. He blames the beauty of Florinda for his sexual arousal and provocation (Scene 3, ln 42-44). Some of the other characters think of Willmore as a rapist and a liar. Florinda and Belvile think that he is a pretender and a rapist when he attempts to rape Florinda. He is an opportunist. He takes the advantage of the serene environ at the garden when Florinda is alone. He is like Blunt in that Blunt vows to rape and defile Florinda. He argues that it will be revenge for the charm that the women use to the men through their irresistible beauties (Scene 4.5, ln 48-51). He is a contrast to other characters such as Pedro, who believe in equality and the fight against violence on
Monday, October 28, 2019
ICT Making a Database of Used Cars Essay For my coursework, I am going to be making a database of used cars. The database is to help customers and staff to see what cars are available and specific information about them. Having a database file of the cars will prove beneficial to the staff as it would take less energy, time and money to search for cars than searching through paper based files. Paper based files can get lost or damaged much easier then electronic files. Electronic files can be copied, emailed, exported and backed up making it easier to organize for the business. This would be more efficient, because you can search specifically through the database to look for certain requirements to meet a customers need. In a database, you can add, edit, save, query and print records. These features are very simple for staff to carry out and are very effective. Using a database allows you to avoid errors through validation rules and input masks. A database can store a large quantity of records, which is also efficient for the business because they can store loads of information about customers. With using a database, you can also make reports, visualisations of data (graphs and charts), tables and data entry forms. This is useful to a growing business that also has a chain of shops/outlets in the country, because data can be emailed easily and the information would be sent in reports and visualisations so managers wont have to organize meetings and waste money. With a database you can combine different types data easily such as numbers and text. Data manipulation is performed by using queries. This is using a structured query language on an easy user interface to help search through records. This is beneficial for customers as well, because they can get a faster and more suitable service. Instead of waiting around for staff to find what they want, staff will be able to query the database in a matter of minutes. Overall, a database will help the business be more organized, have easy access to information and be more productive. Queries Another helpful tool that Access database has is the query tool. With this tool, you can search for anything in the database easily without spending a lot of time searching through records. This is very useful for a business as it saves a lot of time searching for cars or features that customers may ask for. Here are a range of questions that customers may ask: 1. Can you show me any blue Volvos? 2. Have you got any cars that are diesel? 3. Which four door cars do you have? 4. Which cars do you have that are below 5,000? 5. Which cars do you have that have done less than 7,000 miles? 6. Can you show me a list of black cars? Which of these cars are priced under 10,000? 7. Which Ford cars do you have? Which of these cars is priced 10,000 to 15,000? 8. Which cars do you have that have air conditioning? Which of these cars is under 10,000? 9. Which cars do you have that are over 20,000? Which of these cars are diesels? 10. Which blue cars are there? Which of these cars have 5 doors? 11. Can you show me a list of VW Golfs that have Air conditioning? 12. Which cars do you have that have 5 doors and are petrol? 13. Which Nissan cars do you have that have 3 or 5 doors, but are not petrol? 14. Which Vauxhall cars do you have that have 5 or 4 doors? 15. Which cars do you sell that have 2 doors and are petrol? Sources For my coursework, I used a range of sources for my database. These sources are all varied slightly according to the details that were present. These are the 3 different sources I used: Motor Point www.motorpoint.co.uk The Car Shop www.carshop.co.uk NK Motor www.nkmotors.co.uk (Sources are shown on the next three pages.) These sources seemed all accurate, and I decided on what field types I used based on the data present from these sources. I didnt use all the data from every one of these sources, as some seemed unnecessary or didnt include enough information. Example: One record only presented the make, litres and price and because it contained so little data, I did not use it. Some data, I did not copy down because I already had similar records present already: so I was looking for more of a variety. In a business, a car database will have numerous amounts of similar data for cars, but for my coursework I wanted to show as much variation as possible. Example: NK Motors: Vauxhall Zafira 1.8 Club Auto, 5 doors, Grey, 5495 The Car Shop: Vauxhall Zafira 1.8i Club Auto, 5 doors, Grey, 5995 These two records seem too similar, so I only used one of them. The method I used to collect the data was by looking at various different sources and deciding on all the data they had in common i.e. make, model, price etc. and copying down various information from each source. I double-checked all the information I copied and also made sure I did not copy down similar or same information. This method of collecting data is based on the output that I will be producing. The outputs are reports based on 5 different queries that customers may have about the cars. Reasons For Choice Of Software For my coursework I had to compile a database of second hand vehicles using current information from local garages, leaflets and newspapers. The database will be designed so that staff can obtain details of vehicles easily. After I gathered information about 50 vehicles, I decided to test the data with different softwares. These softwares were Access Database and Excel Spreadsheet. Access Database Advantages Disadvantages * Reduce errors in data with validation rules. * Data security by having the ability to put password protection on files. * Databases are designed for multiple users, and each user can have different data permissions. * Can perform many tasks efficiently reports, forms, graphs, queries etc. * Database systems are complex, difficult, and time-consuming to design. * Damage to database can affect the business greatly. * Extensive conversion costs in moving form a file-based system to a database system. * Initial training required for all programmers and users. Excel Advantages Disadvantages * Its easy to edit data and the software can instantly recalculate the total for you. * Simple layout. * A database can be quickly and easily created using Excel. * New columns or rows of information can be generated easily throughout the data entry process. * A spreadsheet is a useful tool for data management as it helps to manage and sort data i.e. alphabetically. * Updating multiple table links can require a lot of tweaking with a spreadsheet application. * With a spreadsheet, by default any cell can contain any kind of data cant control what users input. * This software can contain a lot of unknown errors. I decided to choose Access Database because it was the best software to produce the required outputs. The required output is a report based on information that is processed from the database and you cant produce reports easily in Excel which is one of the first reasons I decided to use Access. Its easy to setup and you can manipulate it to make sure there are no mistakes. Multiple users can access database files which is more efficient for a business that has a lot of staff and requires updates of records. You can query a database which is relatively easier then filtering spreadsheets. You can also do more complex queries in Access then in Excel. You can find information quickly and efficiently which reduces time and money in a business. You can control what is inputted in each cell and create validation rules and error messages to assist users i.e. staff. In Excel you cant control what you put in any cell, so if you make a mistake without realising, that mistake will remain unknown which can corrupt the data and cause there to be false records present. I personally prefer to use Access Database because of its easy user interface and setup. The data that the company will be using seems more compatible for this software as well, because some of the fields are Yes/No answers which can easily be inserted using a tick box. Overall, Excel spreadsheet does have its advantages, but compared to Access Database, it isnt as efficient as it could be.